The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 15 Sup.

CHAPTER XV. HEROES.

Page 1

p. 341. ) On demigods, great gods, dæmones, conf. Boeckh's Manetho, p. 488; semidei, heroes, Arnob. 2, 75. The hero has superhuman strength, ON. hann er eigi einhamr, Fornm. sög. 3, 205-7; einhamr, einhama signif. mere human strength. It is striking how the Usipetes and Tenchtheri glorify human heroes to Caesar, B. G. 4, 7: 'we yield to none but the Suevi, for whom the immortal gods are no match.'

p. 343. ) To vir, OHG. wer, are prob. akin the Scyth. oior, Fin. uros, Kal. 13, 64. 21, 275. 290; conf. Serv. urosh (p. 369n.). GDS. 236. Aug. Civ. Dei 10, 21. K. F. Herm. Gottesd. alt. p. 69. M. Neth. hêlt as well as helet, Stoke 3, 4. Notker's hertinga, AS. heardingas, El. 25. 130, recall Boh. hrdina, Pol. hardzina (hero), conf. Boh. hrdý, Pol. hardy, Russ. górdyi (proud), Fr. hardi, G. hart, herti (hard). Arngrîm's eleventh and twelfth sons are called Haddîngjar, Fornald. sög. 1, 415-6-7. GDS. 448. 477. himelischer degen in the Kl. 1672. degenîn, heroine, Renn. 12291. With wîgant conf. the name Weriant freq. in Karajan. Jesus der Gotes wîgant, Mos. 68, 10. Kämpe may be used of a giant, Müllenh. 267. 277; beside cempa, the AS. has oretta, heros, pugil. Is not ON. hetja (bellator) strictly wrestler, fencer? conf. OHG. hezosun, palaestritae, Graff 4, 1073. GDS. 578. With OHG. wrecchio, AS. wrecca (whence, wretch, wretched), agrees best the description of the insignes in Tac. Germ. 31: Nulli domus aut ager aut aliqua cura; prout ad quemque venere, aluntur prodigi alieni, contemptores sui. Diomed is anhr aristoj, Il. 5, 839. Heroes are rôg-birtîngar, bright in battle, Haralda-mâl 16. Serv. yunák, hero, yunáshtvo, heroism; so MHG. die mîne jungelinge, Fundgr. 2, 91, conf. Nib. 1621, 2, and the heroic line of the Ynglîngar (p. 346). Ir. trean hero; also faolchu hero, strictly wild wolf, falcon, and Welsh gwalch, falcon, hero; conf. Serv. urosh (p. 369n.).

p. 344. ) Heroes derive their lineage fr. the gods: Sigurðr ormr î auga is expressly Oðins aettar, Fornald. sög. 1, 258; the Scythian Idanthyrsus counts Zeus his ancestor, Herod. 4, 126; and Zeus does honour to Menelaus as his son-in-law, gambroj Dioj, 4, 569. They are friends of the gods: Zeus loves both champions, Hector and Ajax, Il. 7, 280; there are 'friends of Ares' and a 'Frey's vinr.' They can multiply the kindred of the gods. Jupiter's children are reckoned up in Barl. 251, 37 seq.; Alexander too is a son of Jupiter Ammon or Nectanebus by Olympias. 'Galli se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant; idque ab druidibus proditum dicunt,' Caes. 6, 18. Dietrich descends fr. a spirit, Otnit fr. Elberich, Högni fr. an elf, and Merlin fr. the devil.

p. 345. ) As Teutonic tradition made Tuisco a 'terra editus,' the American Indians have a belief that the human race once lived inside the earth, Klemm 2, 159. Though Norse mythology has no Mannus son of Tuisco, yet it balances Goðheimr with a Mannheimr, GDS. 768, conf. Vestmanland, Södermanland, Rask on Ælfred's Periplus 70-1; and Snorri's Formâli 12 places a Munon or Mennon at the head of the tribes. He, with Priam's daughter Trôan, begets a son Trôr = Thôr, fr. whom descends Loritha = Hlôrriða, conf. Fornald. sög. 2, 13. GDS. 195. The American Indians have a first man and maker Manitu, Klemm 2, 155-7. On the mythic pedigree of Mannus and his three sons, see GDS. 824 seq.

p. 346. ) Ingo was orig. called Ango, says Mannhdt's Ztschr. 3, 143-4. he is the hero of the Ingaevones, who included the Saxons and formerly the Cheruscans, consequently the Angles, Angern, Engern (GDS. 831. 629. 630), whose name is perhaps derived from his.

p. 350. ) Did Dlugoss in his Hist. Polon. draw fr. Nennius? Jrb. d. Berl. spr. ges. 8, 20; conf. Pertz 10, 314.

p. 350 n. ) Ascafna-burg, fr. the rivulet Ascafa = Ascaha, is likewise interpr. in Eckehardus' Uraug. as 'Asken-burg ab Ascanio conditore,' and is a castellum antiquissimum, Pertz 8, 259. 578. On Asc and Ascanius conf. p. 572.

p. 351. ) The old Lay of Patricius 19, ed. Leo. p. 32-3 has Eirimoin (Erimon). Heremon in Diefenb. Celt. 2b, 387-9. 391.

p. 355. ) A communication fr. Jülich country says, Herme is used as a not very harsh nickname for a strong but lubberly man. But they also say, 'he works like a Herme,' i.e. vigorously; and legend has much to tell of the giant strength of Herme; conf. Strong Hermel, KM. 3, 161. Herman, Hermanbock, Maaler 218b. Firmen. 1, 363b: 'to make believe our Lord is called Herm.' Lyra Osnabr. 104: 'du menst wual, use Hergott si 'n aulen Joost Hierm.' It is remarkable that as early as 1558, Lindner's Katziporus O, 3b says of a proud patrician, who comes home fuller of wine than wit: 'he carries it high and mighty, who but he? and thinks our Lord is called Herman.' On the rhyme 'Hermen, sla dermen,' suggestive of the similar 'Hamer, sla bamer, sla busseman doet' (p. 181-2), conf. Woeste pp. 34. 43. Firmen. 1, 258. 313. 360.

p. 357 n. ) Other foreign names for the Milky Way. American Indian: the way of ashes, Klemm 2, 161. In Wallach. fairytales, pp. 285. 381, it comes of spilt straw that St. Venus (Vinire) has stolen from St. Peter. In Basque: ceruco esnebidea, simply via lactea, fr. eznea milk. Taj eij ouranou yucwn nomizomenaj odouj, Lucian's Encom. Demosth. 50. Lettic: putnu zel s ch, bird-path, Bergm. 66 (so poroj oiwnwn, aether, Æsch. Prom. 281); also Deeva yahsta, God's girdle 115, or is that the rainbow? (p. 733). Arianrod is also interpr. corona septentrionalis, though liter. silver-circle. For the many Hungar. names see Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 162-3.

Other Teutonic names. East Frs. dat melkpath, and when unusually bright, harmswîth, Ehrentr. Fries. arch. 2, 73. With galaxia they seem to have conn. Galicia; hence to Charlemagne, at the beginning of the Turpin, appears James Street, leading from France to Galicia. In Switzld: der weg uf Rom, Stutz 1, 106. Westph.: mülenweg (Suppl. to 924), also wiärstrate, weather-street, Woeste p. 41; so in Jutland veirveien, Molb. Dial. lex 646, as well as arken 18. To ON. vetrarbraut, winter-way, corresp. the Swed. vintergatan; conf. Gothl. kaldgotu, Almqv. 432, unless this be for Karl's-gate. Do sunnûnpad, sterrôno strâza, wega wolkôno in Otfrid i. 5, 5 mean the galaxy? conf. the path of clouds, Somadeva 2, 153-7. 58. 61. Journ. to Himavan 1, 106. Heer-strasze (-gasse), viz. that of the 'wütende heer,' in Meier's Schwäb. sag. 137-9; herstrasz, Mone 8, 495; Up. Palat. hyrstrausz, heerweg, Bergm. 115-8. 124; helweg (p. 801-2). Most import. for mythol. are: frauen Hulden strasze, vron Hilden straet, Pharaïldis sidus (p. 284-5); also 'galaxa, in duutsche die Brunelstraet,' Naturk. von broeder Thomas (Clariss's Gheraert, p. 278).

p. 361.

As we have Iuuåringes-weg and Eurings-strasz by the side of Iringewsweg, so in oldish records Eurasburg castle is called Iringesburg, Schm. 1, 96. Irinc is in the Nib. 1968 a young man, 1971-89 a markgraf and Hâwartes man, and in the Klage 201. 210 ze Lütringe geborn. On the meaning of the word conf. pp. 727. 1148. Kl. schr. 3, 234. F. Magnussen in his Pref. to Rîgsmâl connects (as I had done in my Irmenstrasse 1815, p. 49) the Ericus of Ansgar and the Berich of Jornandes with Rîgr, as also the Eriksgata; conf. the devil's name gammel Erich (p. 989). That Erich was a deified king is plain from a sentence in the Vita Anskarii cited above: 'nam et templum in honore supradicti regis dudum defuncti statuerunt, et ipsi tanquam deo vota et sacrificia offerre coeperunt.'

p. 363n.)

Suevi a monte Suevo, Chr. Salern., Pertz 5, 512. a Suevio monte, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 493. GDS. 323.

p. 365.)

On the castra Herculis by Noviomagus, Ammian. Marc. 18, 2. With the giant bones of Hugleich at the Rhine mouth (Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 10) we may even conn. the Herculis columna which stood there (p. 394). On Herc. Saxanus, Mannhdt's Germ. mythen p. 230; on the inscriptions, Mythol. ed. 1, p. 203. Herculi in Petra, Gruter 49, 2. pedion liqwdej on the Rhone, Preller 2, 147. Wolfram's Wh. 357, 25. 386, 6. 437, 20.

p. 366. )

Like Castor and Pollux, there appear in Teut. tales two youths, angels, saints, in a battle, or putting out a fire (Suppl. to Pref. xliii. end): 'duo juvenes candidis circumamicti stolis, animam a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per aërem,' Jonas Bobb. in Vita Burgundofarae (Mabillon 2, 421); conf. p. 836-7. duo juvenes in albis, putting out a fire, in Annal. Saxo p. 558. Chronogr. Saxo in Leibn. 122 fr. Einh. Ann., Pertz 1, 348. Again, the angel wiping the sword in Roth's Sermons p. 78, and the destroying angel. Lithuanian legends have a giant Alcis, Kurl. sendungen 1, 46-7. Jalg eða Jalkr, Sn. 3; jalkr = senex eviratus, says F. Magn.

p. 367n.)

Note, in the Pass. 64, 41: ein wuotegôz unreiner = Wuotilgôz: conf. 'wüetgusz oder groz wasser,' Weisth. 3, 702. and 'in wuetgussen, eisgussen und groszen stürmen, 3, 704. Also p. 164, and Wuetes, Wüetens, Schm. 4, 203. GDS. 440. 774-5.

p. 368.)

Sigi is Oðin's son, Sn. 211a. So is Hildôlfr, ibid., 'Harbarð's lord,' Sæm. 75b, OHG. Hiltwolf. So is Sigrlami, Fornald. sög. 1, 413, and has a son Svafrlami. So is Nefr or Nepr, Sn. 211a, Semîngr in Hervarars., Fornald. s. 1, 416; conf. Sâmr, Sâms-ey, Rask's Afh. 1, 108. The name of Gautr, Oðin's son or grandson, is conn. with giezen (pp. 23. 105n. 142. 164. 367); on Gautr, Sn. 195. Oðinn is called Her-gautr, Egilss. p. 624, alda gautr, Sæm. 95b. 93b; conf. Caozes-pah, -prunno (-beck, -burn), Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 530.

p. 370. )

The accounts of Sceáf in AS. chronicles are given by Thorpe, Beow. p. 4. In the same way Beaflor sails alone in a ship, a bundle of straw under his head, Mai 35-9, arrives 51-3, sails away again 152; the ship gets home 180, 39. Horn also comes in a ship, and sends it home with greetings. A Polish legend says of Piast: qui primus appulerit in navicula, dominus vester erit, Procosius p. 47. As the Swan-children can lay aside the swan-ring, so can the Welfs the wolf-girdle or whelp-skin. Klemm 2, 157 has a remarkable story of beautiful children slipping off their dog-skin. 'Skilpunt' in Karajan's Salzb. urk. must be for Skilpunc. Oðinn is a Skilfîngr, Sæm. 47. Did the f and b in Scilfing, Scilbunc arises out of v in skildva? The Goth. skildus has its gen. pl. skildivê.

p. 371. ) Kl. schr. 3, 197. To the Gibichen-steine enumer. in Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 573, and the Gebiches-borse in Weisth. 3, 344 (borse, Graff 3, 215), add Geveken-horst, Möser 8, 337. Dorow's Freckenh. 222, and AS. Gificancumb, Kemble no. 641 (yr. 984). The Nibel., which does not mention the Burgundian Gibeche, has a fürste or künec Gibeke at Etzel's court 1283, 4. 1292, 2. The Lex Burg. 3 says: apud regiae memoriae auctores nostros, id est, Gibicam, Godomarem, Gislaharium, Gundaharium. Greg. Tur. 2, 28: Gundeuchus rex Burgundionum; huic fuere quatuor filii, Gundobaldus, Godegisilus, Chilpericus, Godomarus.

p. 371. )

The diffusion of the Völsûnga-saga among the Anglo-Sax. is evidenced by 'Välsing' and 'Välses eafera' in Beow. 1747-87. The Völsungs have the snake's eye (Suppl. to 392, mid.). The tale of Säufritz is told in Bader no. 435.

p. 371n.)

Mars segumon, vincius, Stälin 1, 112. Glück 150 says, segomo in nom. De Wal. no. 246 (1847). Can it be the same as hgemwn, dux?

p. 373.)

Oðinn himself is called helblindi, and Helblindi is the name of a wolf (p. 246). Beaflor is said to have give birth to a wolf, Mai 132, 9; conf. the story of the 12 babies named Wolf, Müllenh. p. 523, and that of the blind dogs, Pliny 8, 40.

p. 374.)

Pillung, MB. 9, 10 (yr. 769). Hermann Billing, Helmold 1, 10. Billung in the Sassen-chron., conf. Förstemann 1, 258. 2, 225. Oda, grandmother of Henry the Fowler, was the daughter of a Frankish noble Billung and Aeda, Pertz 6, 306. tome Billingis-huge, Gl. to the Ssp. 3, 29; conf. regulus Obotritorum nomine Billug, Helm. 1, 13. What means 'pillungs ein wênic verrenket' in the Hätzlerin 180, 37?


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