The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 13 Sup.

Page 1

CHAPTER XIII. - GODDESSES.

p. 250n. ) The MHG. gotinne is in Sæm. 115a gyðja, yet in 114b ey trûði Ottar â âsynjor, and 61a heilir aesir, heilar âsynjor! conf. pantej te qeoi pasai te qeainai, Il. 8, 5. 19, 101. Od. 8, 341. This word goddess acquired a lower sense, being used by the people for fair dames and pretty lasses, Liudpr. antap. 4, 13. 'Ermegart Himel-gotin,' Rückert's Ludwig 97. What is the götin in Nithart MSH. 3, 288a, who goes 'unter dem fanen ûz dem vorst, wol geammet,' and is led out on the green under blue sky (baldachin), apparently by peasants at an old harvest-festival? conf. fee, Suppl. to 410.

p. 251. ) OHG. ero, earth, answers to Ssk. irâ, Ir. ire, GDS. 55. Tellus might be for terulus, as puella for puerula, but the gen. is telluris, conf. Ssk. tala, fundus. Humus is Ssk. xamâ. Iaia, called prwtomantij in Æsch. Eum. 2, corresponds to Ssk. gaus, gô, cow (p. 665), the cow being mother of the world (p. 559): w gh kai qeoi, a frequent Attic invocation. ON. fold is unpersonal, yet is greeted in Sæm. 194a: heil sû hin fiolnýta fold! GDS. 60 (p. 254). ----- Iörð, earth, is called Ionakr's tree-green, oak-green daughter: dottur Onars viði-groen, Sn. 123; eikigroent Onars flioð, Fornm. sög. 1, 29. 12, 27. She is daughter of night in Sæm. 194a: heil nôtt ok nipt! but who is eorðan brôðor, Cod. Exon. 490, 23? Iörð is also mother of Meili, Thor's brother, Sæm. 76a; Iörð = Fiörgyn 80b (p. 172). ----- Of Rindr and her relation to Oðin: 'seid Yggr til Rindr,' Y. amores Rindae incantamentis sibi conciliavit, Sn. 1848. 1, 236. Is AS. hruse (terra) contained in grusebank, turf-bench, Schm. von Wern. 114?

p. 251n. ) At Attila's grave too the servants are killed: 'et ut tot et tantis divitiis humana curiositas arceretur, operi deputatos trucidarunt, emersitque momentanea mors sepelientibus cum sepulto,' Jorn. cap. 49. The Dacian king Decebalus buries his treasure under the bed of the Sargetia, Cass. Dio 68, 14. Giesebrecht supposes the Wends had the same custom, Balt. stud. 11, 28-9.

p. 252. ) Nerthus is the only true reading, says Müllenhoff, Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 256; Erthus is admissible, think Zeuss and Bessel. Nerthus answers to Ssk. Nritus, terra, Bopp 202b; conf. C. Hofmann in Ztschr. der morgenl. ges. 1847. A thesis by Pyl, Medea, Berol. 1850 p. 96 derives it fr. LG. nerder, nerdrig, conf. nerteroj. Her island can hardly be Rügen (p. 255-6), but perhaps Femern or Alsen, says Müllenh., Nordalb. stud. 1, 128-9. Her car stood in the grove (templum) under a tree, Giefers. 'Nerthus, id est, Terra mater' strongly reminds of Pliny's mater deum 18, 4: quo anno m. d. advecta Romam est, majorem ea aestate messem quam antecedentibus annis decem factam esse tradunt.

p. 253. ) Though the people now imagine fru Gode, Goden, Gauden as a frau, there appears now and then a de koen (king) instead, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 385. Legends of fru Gauden in Lisch, Meckl. jrb. 8, 203, &c. Niederhöffer 2, 91 (conf. p. 925-6-7). Harvest home still called vergodensdêl in Lüneburg, conf. Kuhn and Schwartz p. 394-5. The Vermlanders call Thor's wife godmor, good mother. Rask, Afh. 1, 94 derives ON. Gôi fr. Finn. koi (aurora). GDS. 53. 93.

p. 254. ) Priscus calls Attila's wife Kreka 179, 9, Rekan 207, 17, which easily becomes Herka. Frau Harke a giantess, Kuhn 146. 371. Fru Harke, Arke, Harfe, Harre, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 386, 5, 377. Sommer 11. 167-8. 147 (conf. frau Motte, 12. 168. 147). A witch's daughter Harka, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 255. Haksche, like Godsche for Gode, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 377. Harke flies through the air in the shape of a dove, makes the fields fruitful, carries a stool to sit on, so as not to touch the ground, Sommer p. 12; this is like Herodias (p. 285) and the wandering woman (p. 632. 1058).

p. 254n. ) Mommsen 133 derives Ceres, Oscan Kerres, from creare; Hitzig Philist. 232 connects it with Çrîs = Srî; I with cera and cresco. For Demeter the Slavs have zeme mate, mother earth; a dear mother, like (puroj) filhj Dhmhtroj, Æsop (Corais 212. de Furia 367). Babr. 131; conf. Dhmhteroj akth, Il. 13, 323, and 'das liebe korn, getreidelein,' Gram. 3, 665. GDS. 53. The Earth's lap is like a mother's: foldan sceát (= schoosz), Cod. Exon. 428, 22. eorðan sceáta eardian 496, 23. eorðan sceátas hweorfan 309, 22. grund-bedd 493, 3.

p. 255. ) On the goddess's progress see Suppl. to 252. With her bath conf. the purifying bath of Rhea (Preller 1, 409), whose name Pott would explain by eureia = Ssk. urvî fr. urú = varú, Kuhn's Ztschr. 5, 285. The lavatio Berecynthiae is described by Augustine, Civ. Dei 2, 4; conf. Vita Martini cap. 9 (W. Müller p. 48). The image of Artemis was washed in seven rivers flowing out of one spring, Pref. to Theocritus; the alraun and alirumna were bathed.

p. 256n. ) The LG. farmer's maxim, 'Mai-mând kold un nat Füllt schünen un fat, is in Swedish 'Mai kall Fyller bondens lador all,' Runa 1844, 6. A similar saw in Bretagne about St. Anne, Lausitzer mag. 8, 51; how is it worded in French?

p. 257. ) On Tanfana see my Kl. Schr. 5, 415, etc. GDS 231-2. 336. 622.

p. 263. ) From Rodulf's account was probably taken the 16th cent. notice in Reiffenberg's Phil. Mouskes, tome 1. Brux. 1838 app. p. 721: 'Sub Alexandro, qui fuit sex annis episcopus (Leodiensis) et depositus in Conc. Pisae an. 1135, fuit quaedam prodigiosa seu demoniaca navis, quae innixa rotis et magice agitata malignis spiritubsattractu funium fuit Tungris inducta Loscastrum. Ad quam omnis sexus appropinquans tripudiare et saltare cogebatur etiam nudo corpore. Ad eam feminae de mane stratis exilientes accurrebant, dum dicta navis citharae et aliorum instrumentorum sonitu resonaret.' ---- Weavers, whom Rodulf makes prominent in hauling, and guarding the ship, have something to do with navigation: in their trade they ply the schiff (shuttle), and that is why they were called marner, Jäger's Ulm. p. 636-7. About carrying ships on shoulders Pliny has another passage 5, 9: 'ibi Aethiopicae conveniunt naves; namque eas plicatiles humeris transferunt quoties ad catarractas ventum est.' Also Justin 32, 3: 'Istri naves suas humeris per juga montium usque ad littus Adriatici maris transtulerunt.'

Additional traces of German ship-processions and festivals. In Antwerp and Brabant, near the scene of that old procession, there was about 1400 'eine gilde in der blauwer scuten,' Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 266-7. At Shrovetide sailors drag a ship about, Kuhn's Nordd. sagen p. 369. At the Schönbart running in Nürnberg, men in motley used at Shrovetide to carry Hell round, including a ship and the Venus Mount; see Hist. of Schönb.-run. at N., by the Germ. Soc. of Altdorf 1761. Another ship procession in Hone's Everyday book 2, 851. In the 'Mauritius und Beamunt,' vv. 627-894, a ship on wheels, with knights and music on board, is drawn by concealed horses through the same Rhine and Meuse country to a tournament at Cologne; it is afterwards divided among the garzuns (pages), v. 1040. Is the idea of the Ship of fools travelling fr. land to land akin to this? especially as Dame Venus 'mit dem ströwn ars' (conf. Hulda's stroharnss, p. 269n.) rides in it, ed. Strobel p. 107; 'frau Fenus mit dem stroem loch,' Fastn.-sp. p. 263. Consider too the cloud-ship of Magonia (p. 639), and the enchanted ship with the great band of music, Müllenh. p. 220. The 'wilde gjaid' comes along in a sledge shaped like a ship, drawn by naughty maidservants, who get whipped, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 32-3. Nursery tales tell of a ship that crosses land and water, Meier 31. Schambach 18. Pröhle's Märchen nos. 46-7. Wolf's Beitr. 1, 152, &c. Finn. märch. 2, 1b. Berchta is often ferried over, and of Oðinn the Sôlarlioð 77 (Sæm. 130a) says: Oðins qvon rær â iarðar skipi.

p. 264n. ) At Shrovetide a plough was drawn through the streets by maskers, Büsching's Wöch. nachr. 1, 124, fr. Tenzel. H. Sachs says, on Ash Wednesday the maids who had not taken men were yoked in a plough; so Fastn.-sp. 247, 6-7; 'pulling the fools' plough' 233. 10. Kuhn conn. pfluoc, plôgr, Lith. plugas with the root plu, flu, so that plough orig. meant boat, Ssk. plava, Gr. ploion.

p. 265n. ) Drinking-bowls in ship shape; argentea navis, Pertz 10, 577. A nef d'or on the king's table, Garin 2, 16-7; later examples in Schweinichen 1, 158. 187. An oracle spoke of a silver ploughshare, Thucyd. 5, 16.

p. 265n. 2.) Annius Viterb., ed. ascensiana 1512, fol. 171ab: 'ergo venit (Isis) in Italiam et docuit frumentariam, molendinariam et panificam, cum ante glande vescerentur ....... Viterbi primi panes ab Iside confecti sunt. item Vetuloniae celebravit Jasius nuptias, et panes obtulit primos Isis, ut in V. antiquitatum Berosus asserit. porro, ut probant superiores quaestiones, Vetulonia est Viterbum.' The Lith. Krumine wanders all over the world to find her daughter, and teaches men agriculture, Hanusch 245. The year will be fruitful if there is a rustling in the air during the twelves, Sommer p. 12 (Suppl. to 254).

p. 267. ) Goth. hulþs propitius is fr. hilþan, halþ, hulþun, to bow (s. Löbe). Holle, Holda is a cow's name in Carinthia. In Dietr. drachenk., str. 517-8, &c. there is a giant called Hulle, but in str. 993: 'sprancten für frowen Hullen der edelen juncfrowen fîn.' In Thuringia frau Wolle, Rolle, Sommer 10-1. Holda in Cod. Fuld. no. 523. Frau Holla in Rhenish Franconia, Frommann 3, 270. 'Die Holl kommt' they say at Giessen, 'die Hulla' also beyond the Main about Würzburg, Kestler's Beschr. v. Ochsenfurt, Wrzb. 1845, p. 29. Frau Holle also in Silesia. n Up. Sax. she was called frau Helle, B. vom abergl. 2, 66-7; frau Holt in Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 273. ---- The very earliest mention of Holda is in Walafrid Strabo's eulogy of Judith, wife of Louis the Pious:

 

Organa dulcisono percussit pectine Judith;

 

O si Sappho loquax vel nos inviseret Holda, etc.

p. 267n. ) With Kinderm. 24 conf. the variant in KM. 3, 40 seq., Svenska äfv. 1, 123 and Pentam. 4, 7. Much the same said of the dialas, Schreiber's Taschenb. 4, 310 (Suppl. to 410).

p. 270. ) When fog rests on the mountain: 'Dame H. has lit her fire in the hill.' In Alsace when it snows; 'd' engele han 's bed gemacht, d' fedre fliege runder;' in Gegenbach 427: 'heaven's feathers fly'; in Nassau: 'Dame H. shakes up her bed,' Kehrein's Nassau p. 280. Nurses fetch babies out of frau Hollen teich. In Transylvania are fields named Frau-holdegraben, Progr. on Carrying out Death 1861, p. 3. She washes her veil, Pröhle 198. Like Berthe, she is queen or leader of elves and holdes (p. 456), conf. Titania and Dame Venus. 'Fraue Bercht, fraue Holt' occur in the Landskranna (?) Himelstrasz, printed 1484, Gefken's Beil. 112. In the neighbourhood of the Meisner, Dame H. carried off a rock on her thumb, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 108; a cave is there called Kitz-Kammer, perhaps because cats were sacred to her as to Freya (p. 305). On the Main, between Hassloch and Grünenwörth, may be seen 'fra Hulle' on the Fra Hullenstein, combing her locks. Whoever sees her loses his eyesight or his reason. Dame Holle rides in her coach, makes a whirlwind, pursues the hunter, Pröhle 156. 278. 173, like Pharaildis, Verild (357n.). Legends of Hulle in Herrlein's Spessart-sag. 179-184. A frau Hollen-spiel (-game) in Thuringia, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 109. The Haule-mutter (mother H.) in the Harz, an old crone, makes herself great or little, Harrys 2, no. 6. Pröhle 278; conf. Haule-männerchen (dwarfs) in KM. no. 13. She is a humpbacked little woman, Sommer p. 9; walks with a crutch about Haxthausen, Westph. ----- Again, queen Holle appears as housekeeper and henchwoman to Frederick Barbarossa in Kifhäuser, exactly as Dame Venus travels in Wuotan's retinue, Sommer p. 6. In Up. Hesse 'meätt der Holle färn' means, to have tumbled hair or tangled distaff, prob. also night-walking: the Holle at Wartburg looks like a witch, Woeste's Mitth. p. 289 no. 24; conf. 'verheuletes haar,' Corrodi professer 59, and a man with shaggy hair is called holle-kopf. ---- With her stroharnss conf. ströwen-ars, Suppl. to 263. Careless spinners are threatened with the verwunschene frau, Panzer's Beitr. 1, 84: she who does not get her spinning over by Sunday will have Holle in her distaff to tangle it; conf. the Kuga (p. 1188-9).

p. 272. ) The Huldarsaga, tale of the sorceress Huldr, is told by Sturle; conf. the extract fr. Sturlunga in Oldn. läseb. p. 40. Huldre-web in Norway means a soft vegetable material like flannel; and in Faye 42 Huldra is clothed in green. The hulder in Asb. 1, 48. 78. 199 has a cow's tail; here it is not so much one hulder, as many huldren that appear singly. So in the M. Nethl. Rose 5679: 'hulden, die daer singhen' ; are these mermaids? In Sweden they have a hylle-fru and a Hildi-moder, Geyer 1, 27; conf. Dybeck 1845, 56.

p. 273. ) The name of Perahta, the bright, answers to Selene, Lucina, Luna, therefore Artemis, Diana. Hence she takes part in the Wild Hunt, accompanied by hounds, like Hecate; hence also, in the LG. Valentin und Namelos, Berta has become Clarina (conf. St. Lucy, frau Lutz, p. 274n.). ----- The Lith. Lauma is very like Berhta and Holda: she is goddess of earth and of weaving. She appears in a house, helps the girls to weave, and gets through a piece of linen in no time; but then the girl has to guess her name. If she guesses right, she keeps the linen; if not, the laume takes it away. One girl said to the laume: 'Laume Sore peczin auda duna pelnydama,' 1. S. weaves with her arm, earning bread. Her name was Sore, so the girl kept the linen, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 2, 380. Schleicher in Wien. ber. 11, 104 seq. says, the laume is a malignant alp (nightmare) who steals children, is voracious, yet bathes on the beach, helps, and brings linen: a distinct being (11, 96-7) fr. the laima spoken of on p. 416n. Nesselm. 353b.

p. 273n. ) Werre is akin to Wandel-muot, Ls. 3, 88. 1, 205-8: frô Wandelmuot sendet ir scheid-sâmen (seeds of division) 2, 157. in dirre wîten werlde kreizen hat irre-sâmen (seeds of error) uns gesât ein frouwe ist Wendelmuot geheizen, MS. 2, 198b; conf. the seed sown by death (p. 848) and the devil (p. 1012). frou Wendelmuot hie liebe maet mit der vürwitz segens abe (dame Ficklemind here mows down love with curiosity's keen sithe), Turl. Wh. 128a.

p. 274. ) The meal set ready for Bertha resembles the food offered to Hecate on the 30th of the month, Athen. 3, 194; certain fish are Ekathj brwtata 3, 146-7. 323. Filling the belly with chopped straw: conf. the hrîsmagi, Laxd. saga 226. As the white lady prescribes a diet for the country folk (Morgenbl. 1847, nos. 50-52), they tell of a dame Borggabe (loan), who gave or lent money and corn to needy men, if they went to her cave and cried 'Gracious dame B.'; conf. OHG. chorn-gëpâ Ceres, sâmo-këpa saticena, Gibicho; wîn-gebe, MB. 13, 42. oti-geba (890n.). Nycolaus von dem crumen-ghebe, an. 1334, Henneb. urk. ii. 13, 30.

p. 277. ) Berta, like Holda, is called mother in the Swed. märchen p. 366, gamla B., trollkäring. In one Swed. tale a fair lady walks attended by many dwarfs; the room she enters is filled with them, Wieselgr. 454. ----- Like the Thuringian Perchta, the devil blows out eyes, Müllenh. p. 202; care breathes upon Faust, and blinds him; conf. the curse, 'Your eyes are mine,' N. Preuss. prov. bl. 1, 395, and 'spältle zustreichen aufstreichen (stroke them shut, stroke them open),' Meier's Schwäb. sag. 136. ------ After the lapse of a year the woman gets her child back, Müllenh. no. 472; so does the man in the wild hunt get rid of his hump (Suppl. to 930); conf. Steub's Vorarlberg p. 83, Bader's Sagen no. 424, and the Cheese-mannikin in Panzer 2, 40. On Berhta's share in the Furious Hunt, see p. 932.

p. 277. ) In S. Germany, beside Bertha, Berche, we find 'frau Bert, Bertel, Panzer's Beitr. 1, 247-8. The wild Berta wipes her ---- with the unspun flax. At Holzberndorf in Up. Franconia, a lad acts Eisen-berta, clad in cow's hide, bell in hand; to good children he gives nuts and apples, to bad ones the rod 2, 117.

p. 278. ) To the Bavar. name Stempo we can add that of the Strasburger Stampho, an. 1277, Böhmer's Reg. Rudolfi no. 322; conf. stempfel, hangman, MS. 2, 2b. 3a. In Schm. 3, 638 stampulanz = bugbear, 2, 248 stempen-har = flax; conf. Von d. Hagen's G. Abent. 3, 13-4. ------ Beside Trempe, there seems to be a Temper, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 181, perhaps sprung out of Quatember in the same way as frau Faste (p. 782n.), ibid. 1, 292. tolle trompe (trampel?), Rocken-phil. 2, 16-7. In favour of S having been added before T is Schperchta for Perchta, Mannh. Ztschr. 4. 388. As Stempe treads like the alp, she seems ident. with the alp-crushing Muraue.

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