The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 10 Sup.

CHAPTER X. - FRO (FREYR).

p. 210. ) The Yngl. 13. calls Freyr veraldar god, Saxo calls Frö deorum satrapa. Goth. fráuja stands not only for kurioj, but for qeoj. The Monachus Sangall. says (Pertz 2, 733): tunc ille verba, quibus eo tempore superiores ab inferioribus honorari demulcerique vel adulari solebant, hoc modo labravit: 'laete vir domine, laetifice rex!' which is surely 'frô herro!' OS., beside frô, etc., has the form fruoho, Hel. 153, 1; if it had a god's name Frô, that would account for Frôs-â, i.e. Frô's aha, ouwa, ea. AS. has other compounds, freábeorht (freahbeort) limpidus, Lye and Hpt Ztschr. 9, 408a; freátorht limpidus 9, 511a, conf. Donarperht; freáraede expeditus (freahræde, Lye); freádrêman jubilare, freábodian nuntiare; a fem name Freáware, Beow. 4048. In Lohengr. 150, zuo dem frôn = to the holy place. ON. has also a frânn nitidus, coruscus. From Fris. frâna may we infer a frâ dominus? Bopp (Gl. 229b) conject. that fráuja may have been frabuja, and be conn. with Skr. prabhu, dominus excelsus; yet prauj, mild, seems to lie near (Slav. prav rectus, aequus, praviti regere, would conn. the meanings of probus, pra#oj, and fráuja).

p. 212. ) Freyr oc Freyja, Sæm. 59. He resembles Bacchus Liber, Dionusoj o Eleuqerioj, Paus. i. 29, 2, and Jovis lufreis, liber. From his marriage with Gerðr (p. 309) sprang Fiölnir, Yngl. 12, 14. Saxo ed. M. 120 likewise mentions his temple at Upsal: Frö quoque, deorum satrapa, sedem haud procul Upsala cepit. Fröi gives food to men, Faye 10. The god travelling through the country in his car resembles Alber, who with larded feet visits the upland pastures (alpe) in spring, Wolf Ztschr. 2, 62; conf. Carm. Burana 131a: 'redit ab exilio Ver coma rutilante,' and the converse: 'Aestas in exilium jam peregrinatur,' ibid. (like Summer, p. 759); 'serato Ver carcere exit,' ib. 135.

p. 213 n. ) On the phallus carried about in honour of Dionysos or Liber by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, see Herod. 2, 48. Hartung 2, 140. falloi estasi en toisi propulaioisi duo karta megaloi, Lucian De dea Syra 16, where more is told about phalli, conf. 28-9. An 'idolum priapi ex auro fabrefactum' in Pertz 5, 481. Phalli hung up in churches at Toulouse and Bordeaux, Westendp. 116. The O. Boh. for Priapus was Pripekal, Jungm. sub v., or Pripegala, Mone 2, 270 out of Adelgar in Martene 1, 626. Slovèn. kurenet, kurent, Serv. kurat.

p. 214. ) Gullinbursti, conf. gulli byrstum, Sn. 104. There is a plant gullborst, which in German too is eberwurz, boarwort, p. 1208. The Herv. saga c. 14 (p. 463. 531) in one passage assigns the boar to Freyr, in the other (agreeing with Sæm. 114a) to Freyja. Perhaps the enormous boar in the OHG. song, Hattem. 3, 578, and the one that met Olaf, Fornm. sög. 5, 165, were the boar of Freyr. In thrashing they make a pig of straw, Schm. 2, 502, to represent the boar that 'walks in the corn' when the ears ripple in the breeze, conf. AS. gârsecg, ON. lagastafr; 'the wild sow in the corn,' Meier schw. 149. Rocholtz 2, 187; 'de willen swîne lâpet drupe,' Schambach 118b.

p. 215. ) On eoforcumbul conf. Andr. and El. 28-9. Tristan has a boar shield, 4940. 6618. Frib. 1944; 'hevedes of wildbare (boars) ich-on to present brought,' Thom. Tristem 1, 75. Wrâsn, wraesen (Andr. 97) in Freá-wrâsnum is vinculum, and Freyr 'leysir or höptom (bonds) hvern,' Sæm. 65a (conf. p. 1231). A helmet in Hrolf Kr. saga is named Hildisvîn and Hildigöltr. Does 'Helmnôt Eleuther' in Walthar. 1008-17 conceal a divine Fro and Liber?

p. 215. ) On the boar's head served up at Christmas, see Hone's Tab. –bk 1, 85 and Everyday-bk 1, 1619-20. guldsvin som lyser, Asbjö. 386; the giant's jul-galt, Cavallius 26; jul-hös, sinciput verrinum, Caval. Vóc. Verland. 28b.

p. 216. ) Skîðblaðnir is from skîð, skîði, asser, tabula; Rask, Afh. 1, 365, sees in it a light Finl. vessel. Later stories about it in Müllenh. 453. The Yngl. saga gives the ship to Oðinn, but in Sæm. 45b and Sn. 48. 132 it is Frey's.

p. 217. ) Freyr is the son of Niörðr and Skaði, who calls him 'enn frôði afi,' Sæm. 81a. She is a giant's, Þiazi's, daughter, as Gerðr is Gymi's; so that father and son have wedded giantesses. The story is lost of Freyr and Beli, whom Freyr, for want of his sword, slays with a buck's horn or his fist, Sn. 41; hence he is called bani Belja, Sæm. 9a. Freyr, at his teething, receives Alfheim, Sæm. 40b.

Many places in Scand. preserve the memory of Freyr: Frösö, Norw. dipl.; conf. Frôsâ, Sup. to 210. Fröjrak (Freyraker), Dipl. norv. 1, 542. Fröslund, Dipl. suec. 2160; Fröswi 1777; Frösberg 2066. Frösåker in Vestmanl., Dyb. i. 3, 15. Schlyter Sv. indeln. 34. Fröslöff in Zealand, Molb. dipl. 1, 144 (yr 1402). Fröskog in Sweden, Runa 1844, 88. Frösunda, Frösved, Frösön, Frötuna, Frölunda, Fröjeslunda, all in Sweden. Frotunum, Dipl. suec. 228. Fryeled, in Jönköpings-län is styled in a doc. of 1313 (Dipl. suec. no. 1902) Fröle or Fröale; a Fröel in the I. of Gothland appears to be the same name, in which Wieselgr. 409 finds led = leið, way; may it not be eled, eld, fire? Niarðarhof ok Freyshof, Munch om Sk. 147. Vrôinlô, now Vronen in West Friesl., Böhmer reg. 28. Müllenh. Nordalb. stud. 138. A man's name Freysteinn is formed like Thôrsteinn.

p. 217. ) Niörðr is called meins vani, innocuus, Sæm. 42a. Sæm. 130a speaks of 'Niarðar dœtur niu;' nine muses or waves? conf. Heimdall's 9 mothers. Niörðr lives at Nôatûn on the sea, and Weinhold in Hpt Ztschr. 6, 40, derives the name from Sansk. nîra aqua, nîradhi oceanus; add Nereus and Mod. Gr. neron. Schaffarik 1, 167 on the contrary connects Niörðr and Niörunn with Slav. nur terra. Or we might think of Finn. nuori juvenis, nuorus juventus, nuortua juvenesco, Esth. noor young, fresh, noordus youth; Lap. nuor young. Or of Celtic neart strength, Wel. nerth, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 226; Sabine Nero = fortis et strenuus, Lepsius Inscr. Umbr. 205. Coptic neter god and goddess, Buns. Egy. 1, 577. Basque nartea north, and Swed. Lap. nuort borealis, not Norw. nor Finn. That he ws thought of in conn. with the North, appears from 'inn norðri Niörðr,' Fornm. sög. 6, 258. 12, 151, where Fagrsk. 123 has nerðri. ----- Places named after him: Niarðey, Landn. 2, 19. Niarðvîk 4, 2. 4. Laxd. 364. Niarðarlögr, Ol. Tr. c. 102. Fornm. s. 2, 252 (see 12, 324). Munch's Biörgyn 121; al. Marða-lög, Iarðar-lög. Is the Swed. Närtuna for Närd-tuna? and dare we bring in our Nörten by Göttingen? Thorlacius vii. 91 thinks niarð-lâs in Sæm. 109b means sera adstricta, as niarð-giörð is arctum cingulum (niarð = tight, fast, or simply intensive). What means the proverb 'galli er â giöf Niarðar' ? Niörðûngr ? Gl. Edd. Hafn. 1, 632b.

p. 218. ) Rask also (Saml. afh. 2, 282-3) takes the Vanir for Slavs, and conn. Heimdall with Bielbogh. I would rather suppose a Vanic cult among the Goths and other (subseq. High German) tribes, and an Asic in Lower Germany and Scandinavia, Kl. schr. 5, 423 seq. 436 seq. 'Over hondert milen henen, Daer wetic (wot I) enen wilden Wenen,' Walew. 5938; appar. an elf, a smith, conf. Jonckbloet 284.

p. 219. ) Oðin's connection with Freyr and Niörðr, pointed out on p. 348, becomes yet closer through the following circumstances. Oðinn, like Freyr, is a god of fertility. Both are said to own Skîðblaðnir (Sup. to 216), both Gerðr, p. 309. Fiölnir, son of Freyr and Gerðr, is another name of Oðinn, Sæm. 46b (p. 348). Skaði, Niörð's wife and Frey's mother, is afterwards Oðin's spouse.

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