The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 9 Sup.

CHAPTER IX. - ZIO (TIW, TYR).

p. 194. ) In Umbrian the nom. was still Juv. dat. Juve, voc. Jupater, Aufr. u. Kuhn Ztschr. 1, 128: Juveis luvfreis, Jupiter liber, Mommsen 139. What of Finn. taivas, coelum? or even Qouroj, the Assyrian mars (Suidas)? A divergent form, 'vater Zi' in Müllenh. nr. 410. ----- Dyaus is not only coelum, but a Vasu-god, who for stealing the cow Nandini has to go through a human life, Holtzm. 3, 101-6. Parallel with the ideas belonging to the root div, are those developed out of Sansk. sur, splendeo: sura deus, sûrja sol, svar coelum.

p. 194. ) Spiegel, Zendav. 6, connects qeoj with dhâ. Lith. dievas god, deive goddess, dievaitiz (godkin) thunderer, dievaite (goddesskin) rain-goddess; conf. Pott's Etym. forsch. 1st ed. 56-7. Benfrey's Orient 1, 510.

p. 195. ) Wackernagel in Hpt Ztschr. 6, 19 retains Tuisco = duplex, and explains it as zwitter, two sexed, just as Lachm. makes tuisc = bimus, two years old; and Müllenhoff agrees with them 9, 261. In that case Tuisco would have nothing to do with Ziu, and Tacitus must have indicated the marvellous hermaphrodite nature. It is a question whether Zio, Tio have not perpetuated himself in the alarm and battle cries zieter, zeter, tiodute, tianut! and in ziu dar nâher, Parz. 651, 11; see Gramm. 3, 303. RA. 877. Leo in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 513. Again, did zie, tie (assembly) originally mean divum, as in 'sub divo, dio'? The Prov. troubadours have sotz dieu = sub divo, under the open sky, Diez's Leb. d. Troub. 166-7; yet it may mean sub Deo.

p. 195. ) From div splendeo (Lith. zibeti) come div, diva coelum, and divan, divasa, divana, contr. dina, dies, Bopp Gl. 168. In Caes. B. Gall. 6, 18 Diespiter is called Dîspater, abl. Dite patre, O. Müll. Etr. 2, 67; conf. Dissunapiter, p. 225. The Etruscan panels have sometimes Tinia for Tina.

p. 198. ) The Germani sacrificed to their Mars for victory: vestita spoliis donabere quercu (Mavors), Claudian in Ruf. 1, 339. huic praedae primordia vovebantur, huic truncis suspendebantur exuviae, Jorn. 5. hostiles suspendit in arbore cristas, Cl. in Ruf. 1, 346. Kuhn finds many points of comparison between Wuotan and the Roman Mars, whom he takes to have been originally a god of spring. Mârs = Mârutas is a by-name of Indra, Hpt Ztschr. 5, 491-2. To Týr Vîga-guð corresponds to 'Mars des wîge got' in En. 5591. Troj. 8140. 8241. Ms. 2, 198b: Mars strîtes got. Christian writers suppose an angel of victory marching in the front of battle: coram eo (Ottone imperatore) angelus penes quem victoria. Mars is a mere abstraction in Erm. Nig. 2, 2: straverat adversos Marsque Deusque viros, and Pertz 8, 228: jam per ordinatas omni parte acies Mars cruentus cepisset frendere; conf. p. 203.

p. 198. ) Ziesburc, Augsburg, Hpt Ztschr. 8, 587. Diuspurch, Lacomb. 83 (yr. 904), Tusburg 205 (1065), Diusburg, all = Duisburg, Thietm. 5, 3. 9. Duseburg, Weisth. 4, 775. A Doesburgh in Gelders; Tussberg, Tyssenberg, Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337. Desberg near Vlotho, Redecker 59. Desenberg, Diesenberg; Tistede, Hamb. liber actor. 331-2. Tiisvad, Tiiswath, in Jutl., Molb. dipl. 1, 9. Zirelberg near Schwatz in Tyrol, H. Sachs i. 3, 251a; conf. p. 298, Zisa, Zisenburg, GDS. 541.

p. 199. ) Add Tived, Tisved, Tivebark, Dyb. 1845, 50-9. MHG. zidelbast, Gervinus 2, 233; conf. Zigelinta, p. 1193.

p. 200. ) The very old symbol of the planet Mars stood apparently for the war-god's shield and spear. Here Týr reminds us of Oðinn and his Gûngnir, p. 147. With tîre tâcnian conf. tîrfœst tâcen, Cod. Exon. 236, 13; sigortâcen 169, 3. sigorestâcen, friðotâcen circumcision, note on Elene 156. Cædm. 142, 29.

p. 202. ) Judges often held their court on Ertag, see Kaltenb. 1, 563a, b. 580a; and judgment may mean war, decision, RA. 818-9. Was a sword set up in the court? On Famars, Fanmars see GDS. 529. 619.

p. 204. ) The trinity of the Abrenunt. requires a god, not a mere hero; for that reason if no other, Sahsnôt must be Mars, or at lowest the Freyr of the Upsal trinity. With Saxneát compare Iarnsaxa, Thor's wife, Sn. 110. In Pomerania they still swear by 'doner sexen,' in Bavaria 'meiner sechsen,' Schm. 3, 193-4; conf. 'mein six!'

p. 205. ) On the divine Cheru see GDS 612. Lucian supplies additional proofs of the Scythian worship of the sword; Toxaris 38: ou ma gar ton Avemon kai ton Akinakhn. Scytha 4: alla proj Akinakou kai Zamolxidoj, twn patrwwn hmin qewn. Jupiter Trag. 42: Skuqai Akinakh quontej kai Qrakej Zamolxidi. Conf. Clem. Alex. admon. 42. GDS. 231. Priscus, quoted in Jorn. c. 5, ed. Bonn. 201, 17. 224, remarks on the sword: Areoj xifoj oper on ieron kai para twn Skuqikwn basilewn timwmenon, oia dh tw eforw twn polemwn anakeimenon, en toij palai afanisqhnai cronoij, eita dia booj eureqhnai. The Mars of the Alans is mentioned by Lucan 8, 223: duros aeterni Martis Alanos. The worship of lance and sword among the Romans is attested by Justin 43, 3: Nam et ab origine rerum pro diis immortalibus veteres hastas coluere, ob cujus religionis memoriam adhuc deorum simulacris hastae adduntur; and Suet. Calig. 24: tres gladios in necem suam praeparatos Marti ultori addito elogio consecravit. Caesar's sword, preserved in Mars's temple at Cologne, was presented to Vitellius on his election, Mascou 1, 117. Later they knelt before the sword at a court martial, Ambraser liederb. 370; conf. Osw. 2969:

dô viel er nider ûf sîniu knie,

daz swert er an sîn hant gevie,

und zôch ez ûz der scheide,

der helt des niht vermeit,

daz ort (point) liez er nider.
To Svantevit, Saxo ed. Müll. 824 gives a conspicuae granditatis ensis. The Indian Thugs worship on their knees an axe or bill, which is mysteriously forged, Ramasiana (Calcutta 1836).

The war-god has also a helmet, witness the plant named Areoj kunh, Týr-hialm, p. 199.

p. 206. ) Hrêð-cyninges, Cod. Exon. 319, 4, said of the wicked Eormanric, and therefore probably from hrêð, hrêðe, crudelis (p. 290); while Hrêðgotum 322, 3 answers to ON. Reiðgotum. 'Red red brengt raed raed,' where the Walloon has 'Mars, Mars,' Coreman's Année de l'anc. Belg. 16; conf. Ret-monat, p. 290. We are not warranted in referring Hrôðrs (or hrôðrs) andscoti, Hýmisq. 11, to Týr.

p. 206 n. ) Zeuss 23 believes in Krodo, and thinks Reto in Letzner is the same. Crodio, Cod. Lauresh. 1634; Crodico 1342. Crôda, Kemble 1, 143; Crêda 1, 159. 177. Krode duvel, p. 248. I am not sure but that Nithart's Krotolf (Hpt 117) has after all a mythical sound, and it is followed by a similar compliment Üetelgôz, p. 367 n. Krathabothl in Lüntzel's Hildesh. 51. Kreetpfuhl, Kreetkind, DS. 1, 415. A 'rivus Krodenbek,' Falke's Trad. Corb. 612. Krottorf in Halberstadt country, conf. Krottenstein for Donnerstein.

p. 207. ) Simrock thinks Týr is one-handed because a sword has only one edge. Does a trace of the myth linger in 'swâ ich weiz des wolves zant (tooth), dâ wil ich hüeten (take care of) mîner hant,' Freid. 137, 23? or in the proverb 'brant stant as dem dode (Tio?) sîne rechte hant,' Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337 ? Conf. the Latin phrases: pugnare aequo, pari, certo, ancipite, dubio, vario, proprio, suo Marte. Widukind has coeco Marte 1, 6, like coeco furore 1, 9. When fighters see the battle going against them, they leave off, and acknowledge wj proj ton qeon sfisin o agwn genoito, Procop. 2, 641. The fickleness of victory is known to the Od. 22, 236: oupw pagcu didou eteralkea nikhn (conf. 'ein Hie-und-dort,' Geo. 5748). Victory and luck are coupled together: sig und saelden geben, Albr. Tit. 2920-33. an sig u. saelden verderben 2929.

p. 208. ) Companions of Mars: circumque atrae Formidinis ora, Iraeque Insidiaeque, die comitatus, aguntur, Aen. 12, 335. Luctus comitatur euntem (Tisiphonen), Et Pavor et Terror, trepidoque Insania vultu, Ov. Met. 4, 485. Bellona, Pavor, Formido, Claud. in Ruf. 1, 342; Metus cum fratre Pavore, De laud. Stil.; Impetus horribilisque Metus, In Pr. et Olybr. 78. deimata panika, Procop. 2, 350. panicus terror, Forcell. sub vv. pan, panicus. A panic foliage-rustling fright, Garg. 256b. So the Wend. volksl. 2, 266a make Triakh, Strakh dwell in a dismal haunted spot; Sl. triakh, trias, tremor, is perh. the Goth. þlahs. The Finn. kammo = genius horroris, horror. There is an ON. saying: Ôttar er fremst î flocki þâ flýa skal'; is that from ôtti, timor? conf. the Ôttar in Hyndlulioð. 'Thâ skaut (shot) þeim skelk î brîngu' ........... 'skaut skelk î brîngu ok ôtta,' where skelk and ôtta are accusatives of skelkr and ôtti, timor. Goth. agis disdraus ina, awe fell upon him, Luke 1, 12; conf. AS. Brôga and Egesa, Andr. xxxii. and diu naht-egese, Diemer 266, 23. OHG. gefieng thô allê forhta, fear took hold of, T. 49, 5. There is personification also in the Romance 'negus neu pot ir, si nos torna espavers, Albig. 4087. A different yet lively description is, 'so that the cat ran up their backs,' Garg. 256b. 218a. Beside Hilda-Bellona (p. 422) appears a male Hildôfr, Sæm. 75b, like Berhtolt beside Berhta.

p. 208. ) Týr, who in the Hymisqviða accompanies Thor to the abode of Hymir, calls the latter his father, and Hymi's concubine his mother; he is therefore of giant extraction; conf. Uhland's Thor 162-3. Is this Týr not the god, as Simrock supposes him to be (Edda, ed. 2, 404)?

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