The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 8 Sup.

Page 1

CHAPTER VIII. - THUNAR.

(Conf. Kl. Schr. 2, 402-438.)

p. 166. ) Donar stands related to donen extendere, expansion of the air (Hpt Ztschr. 5, 182), as tonoj to teinw, yet tonare is in Sansk. stan, resembling stentwr, stonoj and our stöhnen, Kl. schr. 2, 412. In AS., beside Thunor, of whom there is a legend (p. 812-3), we have also Dhôr, Sal. and Sat. 51. So the rubric over John 5, 17 has þunres-dæg, while that over John 5, 30 has þurs-dæg; and the Norman Dudo calls him Thur, Wormius mon. 24. The Abren. has Thuner, dat. Thunare. MHG. still dunre, Pass. 227, 81. Dietr. drach. 110b. des dunres sun (Boanerges), Pass. 227, 59 (Kl. schr. 2, 427). For the compound Swed. tordön, Dan. torden, the Norw. has thordaan, Faye 5, the Jemtl. torn, Almqv. 297, Westgötl. thorn and tånn. In the Dan. märchen Torden-vejr means Thor, as Donner-wetter in Germ. curses stands for Donar. The Swed. Lapps call the thunder-god Tiermes, Klemm 3, 86-7, Ostiaks Toruim 3, 117, Chuvashes Tóra, Tór, Yakuts Tanara, Voguls Tórom, Rask's Afh. 1, 44. 33.

p. 167. ) ON. reið is not only vehiculum, but tonitru: lystir reið (al. þruma), Gulaþ. Hafn. 498. Norw. Thorsreia tonitru, Faye 5. Danish critics regard Ökuþôrr as a different being from Asaþôrr, and as belonging to an older time; yet Sn. 25 places them side by side, and looks upon Thor too as Ökuþôrr, conf. 78. He drives a chariot; conf. the Schonen superst. about Thor, Nilsson 4, 40-1. (1) In Östgötl. the åska is called goa; when it thunders, they say 'goa går,' Kalen 11a; goffar kör, Almqv. 347, but also gomor går 384, and kornbonden går 385. In Holland: 'onze lieve Heer reed (drove) door de lucht.' Father God is rolling d'brenta (milk-vessels) up and down the cellar steps, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 54. Can the old kittel-kar (kettle-car?) of the giant with two goats refer to Donar's chariot? Müllenh. 447; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 422. Thôrr carries a basket on his back: meis, iarnmeis, Sæm. 75a. Sn. 111. OHG. meisa, Graff 2, 874.

p. 167. ) God thunders: die blikzen und die donrelege sint mit gewalte in sîner pflege, MS. 2, 166b. Zeus raises tempest: ote te Zeuj lailapa teinh, Il. 16, 365; 'what doth Zeus?' meant how's the weather? O. Müller's Gr. gesch. 1, 24. Jupiter, alles weters gewalt het er, Ksrchr. 1152 (p. 630). In France: ni oistau nes Damledeu tonant, Aspremont 22b. nes Deu tonant ni poistau oir, Mort de Gar. 145-9. noissiez Deu tonant, Garins 3, 205; conf. 'si gran romore facevano, che i tuoni non si sarieno potuti udire,' Decam. 2, 1. When a thunderstorm comes on, men say: 'schmeckste paar öchsel? merkste e scheindl?' Weinh. schles. wtb. 82; 'ecce ubi iterum diabolus ascendit!' Cæs. Heist. 4, 21. The Russians shout words of insult after the retreating tempest, Asbjörnsen's Hjemmet 193.

p. 168. ) Thunder is God (or the angels) playing at bowls: uns Herr speelt kegeln, Schütze 4, 164. die engel kegeln, Müllenh. 358; conf. the skittle-playing in the Odenberg, p. 953. Or is it anger, and the thunder-bolt his rod, Pol. bozy praten.

p. 168. ) The same Taranis is in the Vedas a surname of Indra the thunder-god, he that passes through, from taran = trans; and so Perun may be conn. with pera (but see p. 171, and Kl. schr. 2, 420). Welsh taran thunder, Gael. tairneach, tairneanach, also torrunn. Taranucnus, Mone's Bad. urgesch. 2, 184. In Burgundy a town Tarnodurum, whose later name Tonnerre and 'le Tonnerrois,' Jos. Garnier 51, prove that the notion of thunder lay in the old name; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 412.

p. 169 n. ) Thôrr heitir Atli oc âsabragr, Sn. 211a, conf. Atli 208a. The Lapps call their Tiermes aiyeke, and his deputy yunkare, stor-yunkare, Klemm 3, 86, the Ests their Pikker wana essa, old father, Verh. 2, 36-7; and the American Indians their Supreme Being the grandfather, Klemm 2, 153. With the mountains Etzel, Altvater we may perh. associate a high mountain Oetschan, Helbl. 7, 1087 (now Öftscher), from Sl. otets, voc. otche, father; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 421.

p. 170n. ) The St. Bernard or Great Bernard is called Montijoux, A.D. 1132. On the jugum Penninum, deus Penninus, see Zeuss 34. 99. Dieffenb. Celt. 1, 170. Several inscriptions 'Jovi Pœnino, Penino' in De Wal no. 211-227. A Mount of joy in Meghaduta 61; in Moravia the Radost, joy. Finn. ilo-kivi, stone of joy, Kalev. 3, 471.

p. 171. ) Comes ad Thuneresberhc (yr. 1123), Erh. 150; apud Thuneresberg 133. Sifrit de Tonresberc (1173), MB. 33a, 44. Sifridus de Donresberch (1241-58) 33a, 68. 90. Of a dragon it is said: er hete wol drî kiele verslunden (swallowed) und den Dunresberc, Dietr. drach. 262b (str. 834). vom Donresberge, Hpt Ztschr. 1, 438. A Donnersberg by Etteln, S. of Paderborn. AS. Ðunresleá, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 84. Ðunresfeld 3, 394. 5, 131, conf. 6, 342. Doneresbrunno, Ztschr. f. Hess. gesch. 1, 244.

p. 171. ) With Slav. grom, hrom (Kl. schr. 2, 418) put our LG. grummeln of distant thunder, Ir. crom, cruim thunder, Fr. grommeler growl; also Lith. grauja it thunders, growimmas thunder.

p. 171. ) To Lith. Perkunas musza, Nesselm. 411b, and P. grauja, grumena 286a, add the phrases: Perkuns twyksterejo (has crashed), P. uzdege (has kindled); Perkuno szowimmas (stroke), P. growimmas (peal), P. zaibas (flash); perkunija thunderstorm. The Livl. reimchr. 1435 says of him: als ez Perkune ir abgot gap, daz nimmer sô harte gevrôs. Near Battenhof in Courland is a Perkunstein with legends about it, Kruse's Urgesch. 187. 49; a Perkuhnen near Libau. Pehrkones is hedge-mustard. The Lapps have an evil god or devil perkel, pergalak, Finn. perkele, Kalev. 10, 118. 141. 207. 327 (sup. to 987).

p. 172. ) In Finn. the oak (tammi) is called God's tree, puu Yumalan, Kalev. 24, 98. 105-7. 115-7; conf. Zeus's oak p. 184, robur Jovis p. 170. Ju-glans, Dioj balanoj = castanea, Theophr. 3, 8. 10. Diosc. 1, 145. The oak being sacred to Thôrr, he slays the giants that take refuge under it; under the beech he has no power over them. It has been remarked, that lightning penetrates twenty times as far into the oak as into the beech, Fries bot. udfl. 1, 110.

p. 172. ) A Swed. folksong (Arvidss. 3, 504) makes Thôrr live in the mountain: locka till Thor î fjäll. Beside Fi0rgvin's daughter Frigg, another daughter Iörð is called Oðin's wife, and is mother of Thôrr. But if Thôrr be = Faírguni, he is by turns Oðin's father and Oðin's son; and he, as well as Frigg, is a child of earth (iörð), Kl. schr. 2, 415. GDS. 119.

p. 173. ) Of Enoch and Elias, who are likewise named together in the ON. dicer's prayer (Sup. to 150), we read in Fundgr. 2, 112:

sie hânt och die wal (option),

daz sie den regin behabin betalle (keep back rain)

swenne in gevalle (when they please),

unt in abir lâzin vliezen (again let flow);

ir zungin megin den himel besliezen (shut up)

unt widir ûftuon (open),

sô si sich wellint muon.
The Lithuanians call Lady-day Elyiôs diena, Ilyios diena, on which it begins or ceases to rain. They derive it from ilyia, it sets in (to rain); is it not rather Elias's day? Elias legends of Wallachia and Bukowina in Schott. 375. Wolf Ztschr. 1, 180. On his battle with Antichrist conf. Griesh. 2, 149.

p. 174. ) Hominem fulgure ictum cremari nefas; terra condi religio tradidit, Pliny 2, 54. Places struck by lightning were sacred with the Greeks, and were called hlusia, enhlusia, because the descending deity had visited them. They were not to be trampled: hoc modo contacta loca nec intueri nec calcari debere fulgurales pronuntiant libri, Amm. Marcell. 23, 5. One peculiar rite was thoroughly Etruscan: such a spot was called bidental, because a two-year old sheep was sacrif. there, Festus sub vv. bidental, ambidens. O. Müller's Etr. 2, 171; the railing round it was puteal, and may be compared to the Ossetic skinpole: bidental locus fulmine tactus et expiatus ove, Fronto 277. Cattle struck dead by lightning are not to be eaten, Westendorp 525.

p. 175. ) uetoj, Umbr. savitu, Aufr. u. Kirchh. 2, 268. ue d ara Zeuj pannucoj, Od. 14, 457. Athen. 4, 73. ton Di alhqwj wmhn dia koskinou ourein, Aristoph. Clouds 373; conf. imbrem in cribrum gerere, Plaut. Ps. i. 1, 100. Dioj ombroj, Od. 9, 111. 358. oute Peloponnhsioij usen o qeoj, Paus. ii. 29, 6. An Egypt. magian conjures the air-god Hermes (ton aerion) for rain, Cass. Dio 71, 8. Indra, who has the thunderbolt, is also god of rain; when he disappeared, it rained no more, Holtzm. 3, 140. 1, 15. In Dalecarl. skaurman åk, the shower-man rides = it thunders, Almqv. 258; conf. Goth. skura vindis = lailay, OHG. scûr tempestas, grando, AS. scûr procella, nimbus, ON. skûr nimbus (Kl. schr. 2, 425).

p. 175. ) Another rain-procession in 1415, Lindenbl. 301. Petronius's 'uvidi tanquam mures' is like our MHG. in Eracl. 142b: sô sît ir naz als eine mûs (from Enenkel), wet as a drowned rat. A prayer of the legio tonans, likewise under M. Antonine, brings on torrents, Cass. Dio 71, 8. A Hungarian prayer for rain, Ungarn in parab. 90; others in Klemm 2, 160 (Kl. schr. 2, 439-458).

p. 176. ) Pikker, Kalewipoeg 3, 16. 23. 358. 16, 855. pikkertaati 20, 730. On pikker and pikne see Estn. Verh. 2, 36-7. He is the avenging thrice-nine god, that appears in the lightning, and with red-hot iron rod (raudwits) chastises evn the lesser gods, who flee before him, like the giants before Thor, to human hearths 2, 36-38. Pikne seems an abbrev. of pitkäinen, tonitru, which occurs in the Finnic form of the Esth. prayer for rain, Suomi 9, 91, and comes from pitkä longus; pitkäikäinen longaevus, the Old = Ukko, says Castrén myth. 39, or perhaps the long streak of the lightning. On Toro, Toor, Torropel see Estn. Verh. 2, 92.

p. 176. ) Ukko blesses the corn, Peterson 106. In a waste field on the coast of Bretagne St. Sezny throws his hammer, and in one night the corn grows up into full ripe ears around it, Bret. Volkss. by Aug. Stöber, prob. after Souvestre.

p. 177. ) The Thunder-god must be meant in the story of the red-bearded giant and the carriage with the golden he-goat, Wolf Ztschr. 2, 185-6. With the N. American Indians both Pahmioniqua and Jhächinchiä (red thunder) are men's names, Catlin tr. by Bergh. 136. 190-1.

p. 178. ) The three phenomena of lightning are described as simultaneous in Hes. Theog. 691: keraunoi iktar ama bronth te kai asteroph poteonto. Distinct from fulgur is a fourth notion, fulguratio (sine ictu).

p. 178. ) Fulgur is called bliks, as late as Justinger. Blixberg, now the ruined castle of Plixburg (Plickhs-perckh in old docs.), stands in the Münster valley near Colmar, oppos. a dwarf's mountain, Schöplfin Als. dipl. no. 1336. des snellen blickes tuc, Freid. 375. himelblicke, Servat. 397. 1651. Roth. 3536. In Styria, himlatzen to lighten, weterblicke fulgura, Hpt Ztschr. 8, 137. wetterleich, Stalder 2, 447. hab dir das plab feuer! H. Sachs ii. 4, 19a. blue light in thunderstorms, Schwab's Alb. 229. Lightning strikes or 'touches': mit blitz gerührt, Felsenb. 1, 7. It arises when sparks are struck with the fiery axe, p. 180a. 813; af þeim liomom leiptrir qvômo, Sæm. 151a. Koonidhj afiei yoloenta keraunon, Od. 24, 539. arghti keraunw 5, 128. 131. trisulcum fulgur, Festus, Varro ap. Non. 6, 2. Sen. Thyest. 1089. ignes trisulci, Ov. Met. 2, 848. Ibis 471. tela trisulca, Claudian iii. Cons. Hon. 14. genera fulminum tria esse ait Caecina, consiliarium, auctoritatis et status, Am. Marc. 23, 5; conf. O. Müll. Etr. 2, 170. The Etruscans had nine fulgurating gods 2, 84. In Romanic, lightning is camêg, form. also calaverna, chalávera; straglüsch, sagietta, saetta lightn. that pierces, also lütscherna (lucerna?). Lith. zaibas lightn., Perkuno zaibas streak of lightn., from zibeti to shine, Nesselm. 345. Mere fulguratio, summer-lightn., distant, feeble, that does not strike, the Finns call Kalevan tulet, K. valkiat, i.e. Calevae ignes, bruta fulmina autumnalia, or kapeen tulet, genii ignes. Lightning is named pur Dioj, Hebr. fire of God.

p. 178 n.) Blecken, plechazan, heaven opening, reminds of the Bastarnae, who thought, when it lightened, the sky was falling on them, Livy 40, 58; conf. Duncker p. 84. In Servain songs munya is the vila's daughter, grom her brother. Mèsets, moon, marries Munya, Vuk 1, 154n. 229-231.

p. 178. ) Tonitrus is toniris chlaccha, Hattem. 3, 598b. tonnerklapf, Justinger 383. 'thunderclap words,' Fr. Simpl. 1, 231. dôzes klac, Parz. 379, 11. Troj. 12231. 14693. donrescal, Fundgr. 2, 116. tonnerbotz, Garg. 270b. 219b, from donerbôz. ON. skrugga tonitru, conf. skröggr fulminans. Dan. tordenskrald, tordenbrag. LG. grummel-wier, -schuur, -taaren (-cloud), Lyra 103. 117, see Sup. to 171. We say thunder rollt, grollt (if distant, grommelt). As lightn. is a bird's glance, thunder is the flapping of its wings, Klemm. 2, 155. Zeus's eagle holds his lightnings, and an eagle raises the storm-wind, p. 633; conf. the bird of Dawn.

p. 179. ) Fulmen is OHG. donarstrâla, Graff 6, 752 and laucmedili, Gl. Jun. 191. Graff 2, 707. blic-schôz mit (or, an) dunr-slegen, Pass. 89, 49. 336, 9. des donres schuz, Freid. 128, 8. donrestrâl der niht enschiuzet, Turl. Wh. 11a. dornstrâl, Griesh. 151. die donerblicke, Fundgr. 1, 73. donresblicke, Freid. 123, 26. des donrisslac, Fundgr. 2, 125. 'ob der doner z'aller frist slüege, swann ez blekzend ist,' if it struck every time it lightens, W. gast 203. swaz er der heiden ane quam, die sluoc er alse ein doner sân, Rother 2734. dô sluog er alsô der thoner, for dem sich nieman mac bewarn, Diemer 218, 8. schûrslac, Helbl. 8, 888. wolkenschôz, Lanz. 1483. weterwegen, Pass. 336, 10. 2. OHG. drôa, drewa is both minae, oraculum, and fulmen, ictus, Graff 5, 246; because lightn. is a bodeful phenomenon? O. Fr. es foldres du ciel, Ogier 1, 146. foudre qi art, Guiteclin 2, 137. Le tonnerre a sept différentes formes pour se manifester aux Polognotis. Il tombe en fer, alors il brise tout; en feu, il brûle; en souffre, il empoisonne; en genwille, il étouffe; en poudre, il étourdit; en pierre, il balaye ce quíl environne; en bois, il s'enfonce où il tombe, Mém. Celt. 2, 211.

Notes:

1. The surnames Hlôrriði, Sæm. 211a, and Eindriði need not conflict with the statement that Thôrr walks or else drives (p. 167n.). In Sn. 101 he is called fôstri Vingnis ok Hlôru (p. 187. 257). In Sn. Formâli 12 Loride is called Thôr's son, and Loricus Thôrs fôstri, who has a wife Glora. Back

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