The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 6 Sup.

CHAPTER VI. - GODS.

p. 104 n.) The Goth. manleika, OHG. mannalîhho (conf. andriaj fr. anhr man), lasts in MHG. wehsîne manlîch, Fundgr. 2, 123. guldîn manlîch, Servat. 2581. 'apud manlîcha,' where the image stands, Notizenbl. 6, 168.

p. 105. ) Though Tacitus mentions no image in human shape, but only signa and formae (effigiesque et signa quaedam detracta lucis in proelium ferunt, Germ. 7, conf. vargr hângir fyr vestan dyr, ok drûpir örn yfir, Sæm. 41b); ---- yet the expression 'numen ipsum, si credere velis,' used of the divine Mother in her bath, cap. 40, does seem to point to a statue.

p. 106. ) In the oldest time fetishes---- stones and logs ---- are regarded as gods' images, Gerh. Metron. p. 26. Gr. to bretaj in the Tragic poets is a god's image of wood (conf. eikwn), though Benfey 1, 511 says 'of clay;' xoanon, prop. graven image fr. xew I scrape, often means a small image worn on the person, e.g. the Cleo in Paus. iii. 14, 4; agalma, orig. ornament, then statue; zwdion, liter. little-animal 15, 8. Statues were made of particular kinds of wood: xoanon agnou, of the vitex agnus-castus 14, 7 (conf. ramos de nobilissimo agno casto, Evag. Fel. Fabri 1, 156-7), as rosaries of mistletoe were preferred. cum paupere culta stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus, Tib. i. 10, 20. Irish dealbh, deilbh, deilbhin, deilbhog, imago, statua, figura. Beside the Boh. modla, idolum (fr. model? or fr. modliti, to pray?), we find balwan, block, log, idol, Pol. balwan, Miklos. bal'van', Wall. balavanu, big stone (p. 105 n.), which Garnett, Proceed. 1, 148, connects with Armoric 'peulvan, a long stone erected, a rough unwrought column.' OHG. avara (p. 115-6) stands for imago, statua, pyramis (irmansûl), pyra, ignis, Graff 1, 181; conf. Criaches-avara (p. 297); OS. avaro filius, proles, AS. eafora. The idea of idolum is never clearly defined in the Mid. Ages: the anti-pope Burdinus (A.D. 1118-9) is called so, Pertz 8, 254-5. Even Beda's 'idolis servire' 2, 9 is doubtful, when set by the side of 'daemonicis cultibus servire' 2, 5.

p. 107. ) On Athanaric's worship of idols, conf. Waitz's Ulfila p. 43. 62. Claudian de B. Getico 528 makes even Alaric (A.D. 402) exclaim: Non ita dî Getici faxint manesque parentum! Compare the gods' waggon with sacer currus in Tac. Germ. 10 and Suppl. to 328-9 below. Chariots of metal have been found in tombs, Lisch Meckl. jb. 9, 373-4. 11, 373.

p. 108. ) That the Franks in Clovis's time had images of gods, is proved further by Remigius's epitaph on him: Contempsit credere mille Numina, quae variis horrent portenta figuris. On the other hand, Gregory of Tours's account (1, 34) of the Alamann king Chrocus in the 3rd century compelling St. Privatus in Gaul to sacrifice to idols, is vaguely worded: Daemoniis immolare compellitur, quod spurcum ille tam exsecrans quam refutans; on Chrocus conf. Stälin 1, 118.

p. 108n. ) Old idols in churches were placed behind the organ (Melissantes orogr. p. 437-9) in Duval's Eichsfeld 341. 'An idols' chamber was in the old choir,' Leipz. avant. 1, 89-91; 'the angels out of the firewood room,' Weinhold's Schles. wtb. 17b; fires lighted with idols, conf. Suppl. to p. 13-15. Giants' ribs or hammers hung outside the church-gate, p. 555n.; urns and inverted pots built into church-walls, Thür. mitth. i. 2, 112-5. Steph. Stoflief. p. 189, 190. A heathen stone with the hoof-mark is let into Gudensberg churchyard wall, p. 938.

p. 113. ) The warming (baka), anointing and drying of gods' images is told in Friðþiofs-s. cap. 9 (p. 63). But the divine snake of the Lombards was of gold, and was made into a plate and chalice (p. 684). The statua ad humanos tactus vocalis, Saxo p. 42, reminds of Memnon's statue. Some trace of a Donar's image may be seen in the brazen dorper, p. 535. On the armrings in gods' images conf. the note in Müller's Saxo p. 42. Even H. Sachs 1, 224b says of a yellow ringlet: 'du nähmst es Gott von füssen 'rab,' off God's feet; and ii. 4, 6d: ihr thet es Got von füssen nemmen. Four-headed figures, adorned with half-moons, in Jaumann's Sumlocenne p. 192-4. On nimbi, rays about the head, conf. p. 323 and Festus: capita deorum appellabantur fasciculi facti ex verbenis. Animals were carved on such figures, as on helmets; and when Alb. of Halberstadt 456a transl. Ovid's 'Illa mihi niveo factum de marmore signum Ostendit juvenile, gerens in vertice picum,' Met. 14, 318, by 'truoc einen speht ûf sîner ahseln,' he probably had floating in his mind Wôdan with the raven on his shoulder. Even in Fragm. 40a we still find: swuor bî allen gotes-bilden.

p. 114n. ) Gods' images are instinct with divine life, and can move. Many examples of figures turning round in Bötticher's Hell. Temp. p. 126. One such in Athenaeus 4, 439; one that turns its face, Dio Cass. 79, 10: sacra retorserunt oculos, Ov. Met. 10, 696; one that walks, Dio Cass. 48, 43. idrwei ta xoana kai kineetai, Lucian ed. Bip. 9, 92. 120. 378; deorum sudasse simulacra, Cic. de divin. 2, 27. simulacrum Apollinis Cumani quatriduo flevit, Augustin. Civ. Dei 3, 11; Lanuvii simulacrum Junonis sospitae lacrimasse, Livy 40, 19; lapidum fletus = statuarum lacrimae, Claudian in Eutrop. 2, 43. simulacrum Jovis cachinnum repente edidit, Suet. Calig. 57. Flames burst out from head and breast, Herod. 6, 82. An Artemis drops her shield, Paus. iv. 13, 1. Not only are they spoken to (interdiu cum Capitolino Jove secreto fabulabatur, modo insusurrans ac praebens invicem aurem, modo clarius, nec sine jurgiis, Suet. Calig. 22), but they answer. Being asked, 'visne ire Romam, Juno?' she nods and says yea, Livy 5, 22.

The same in Teutonic heathenism. Thôr's image walks and talks, Fornm. s. 1, 302. As Thorgerð's image bends its hand to keep the gold ring on, Mary's does the same, see above, and Ksrchr. 13142-265-323. Vinc. Bellov. 25, 29 foll. by Heinr. de Hervord ad an. 1049. A Virgin sets the Child down, and kneels to it, Marienleg. 228; the Child is taken from her, Pass. 144, conf. Ges. Ab. 3, 584. A Mary receives a shot, and saves the man it was aimed at, Maerl. 2, 202. A Crucifix embraces a worshipper, Keisersb. seel. par. 75d; bows to one who has forgiven his mortal foe, Sch. u. Ernst 1522 cap. 628; 'dat cruce losede den voet, unde stotte ene,' kicked him, Detm. 1, 7. An image bites the perjurer's hand off, Sch. u. Ernst c. 249; speaks, Alexius 444. 490. Maerl. 2, 201; and turns round, KM. 1 (ed. 2) xlix. The stone visitant in Don Juan nods and walks. Gods' images fall from heaven acc. to the Scythian legend; so does the figure of Athena, Paus. i. 26, 7. Or they are stolen from abroad, dii evocati, e.g. a Juno (Gerh. Etrusker p. 31), and Artemis from Tauris, Schol. to Theocr.; conf. Meiners 1, 420-3. So, in the Mid. Ages, relics were stolen. Again, idols are washed, bathed, Schol. to Theocr.; conf. the Alraun, p. 1203. They were even solemnly burnt; thus in the Bœotian dædals, every 60 years, 14 oaken images of Hera were consigned to the flames, E. Jacobi's Hdwtb. d. Gr. u. Rom. mythol. 394.

p. 115. ) The numbers three and four in conn. with gods' images occur even later still. At Aign on the Inn near Rottalmünster, next the Malching post-house, a St. Leonard's pilgrimage is made to five brazen idols, the biggest of which is called the Worthy. The peasants say none, but the worthy man can lift it. If a youth after his first confession fails to lift the figure, he goes to confession again, and comes back strengthened. The festival is called The three golden Saturday nights in September. A girl proves her virginity (also by lifting?). The Austrians have a Leonard's chapel too, yet they pilgrim to Aign, and say 'he is the one, the Bavarians have the right one,' conf. Panzer's Beitr. 2, 32-4. A nursery tale (Ernst Meier no. 6, p. 38) describes a wooden sculpture in the shape of a horse with four heads, three of which belong to Donner, Blitz and Wetter, evidently Donar, Zio and Wuotan.

p. 118. ) Similar to the irmen-pillar with Mercury's image in the Krschr., is a statue at Trier which represented Mercury flying, Pertz 10, 132. The Lorsch Annals makes Charles find gold and silver in the Irmenseule. There are also stories of mice and rats living inside statues, Lucian somn. 24; in Slavic idols, says Saxo; the Thor that is thrown down swarms with large mice, adders and worms, Maurer bek. 1, 536. What Rudolf of Fulda says of the Irminsul is repeated by Adam of Bremen (Pertz 9, 286). 'irmesuwel der cristenheit,' Germania 1, 451, conf. 444. The Roman de Challemaine (Cod. 7188, p. 69) describes the war of the Franks with the Saxons:

En leur chemin trouverent un moustier

que li Saisne orent fet pieca edifier.

une idole y avait, que les Saisnes proier

venoient come dieu touz et gloirefier.

quar leur creance estoit selonc leur fol cuidier

quele les puist bien sauver jousticier.

Neptusnus ot à non en lonneur de la mer.
One is reminded of the lofty Irminsul by the story of an idol Lug or Heillug, 60 cubits high, in the Wetterau, Ph. Dieffenbach 291 (heiliger lôh?).

p. 121. ) On Caesar's 'Sol et Vulcanus et Luna,' see GDS. 766. The Indiculus comes immediately after the Abrenuntiatio, in which Thuner, Wôden and Saxnôt have been named; its Mercury and Jupiter therefore stand for German gods, as indeed several German words are used in it: nod-fyr, nimidas, frias, dadsisas. The Abrenuntiatio requires you to give up the trilogy Thuner, Wôden, Saxnôt, and all the unholies that are their fellows; so there were three heathen gods, and more. On the trilogy conf. Pref. li. liv., and in Verelius, sub v. blotskap, the passage out of the Trojamanna-s. p. 34, where Brutus invokes Thôr, Oðin and Gefjon.

p. 122. ) Saxo's way of looking at the Norse gods is noticed p. 384-5. The thunder god, who is Thoro at p. 41, and Thor at p. 103, he once names Jupiter. Besides, he has Pluto and Dis = Othinus as Valföðr 36. 140-7; and Proserpina = Hel, 43.

p. 123. ) Lepsius, Einl. p. 131, says the Egyptian week had not 7, but 10 days. 'Nine days' time' is a common reckoning among savages, Klemm 2, 149. To nundinae corresponds eunhmar, yet Nieb. 1, 308, and O. Müller Etr. 2, 324 think the Romans had a week of 8 days. The seven-day week is Semitic, was unknown to Greeks or Romans, and rests on a belief in the sacredness of the number 7; conf. Nesselm. on the origin of the week (Königsb. deutsche gesellsch., May 22, 1845). Titurel 2753:

Die sieben stern sieben tugende haltent,

Die muozen alle mensche haben, die dâ zît der tage waltent.

The Provençal names of days in Raynouard sub v. dia. O. Fr. de-mierkes for mercre-di, de-venres for vendre-di; conf. Roquef. suppl. v. kalandre.

p. 125. ) MHG. ---- I. Sunnentac, MS. 2, 190b. Amur 1578. 1609-21. Griesh. 114. 141. suntac, Pass. 299, 68. 81. ----- II. mântac, Frauend. 32, 11. maentags 82, 1. ----- III. aftermaentag, Hätzl. lxviiia. aftermontag, Uhl. volksl. p. 728. zistag and zinstag, Wackern. Bas. hss. 54-7; also Schweiz. geschichtsfr. 1. 82-3. 161. 4, 149. cinstag, Weisth. 1, 759. zinstag, Dietr. drach. 320b. Justinger 59, Keisersp. zistig, Tobler 458. eritag, Fundgr. 1, 75. MB. 27, 89a (1317). 132a (1345). Lang reg. 4, 711a (1300). Grätzer urk. of 1319, etc.; but ibid. erchtag, 1310. Schwabe tintenf. 19. 56. erctag in Hartlieb, Superst. H., cap. 31-2. erichtag, Beheim, 76, 16. H. Sachs 1, 206d. Hutten 3, 358. eretag in Guben, 48, 32. ----- IV. mitwoche, Bas. hss. 57. mittoche, Diemer, 357, 5. von dem mitechen, Tund. 44, 27. des mittichen, MB. 27, 90 (1317). 27, 98 (1321). der midechen, Grätzer urk. of 1320, mitich, mitichen, 1338. midechon, Griesh. 2, 48. 'an dem nehsten guctemtag (!), Schreiber 1, 486 (see p. 124n). ----- V. Records of the 14th cent. waver betw. donresdag and donredag. Dunrstac, Pass. 57, 87, etc. dünderstag, dunderstag alw. in Conr. of Weinsbg. dorstage, Schweiz. geschichtsfr. 3, 260 (1396). Dunredagh, Maltzan 2, 6. Hpt Ztschr. 5, 406. donredagh, Maltzan 2, 45. ---- VI. phincztag, Beheim 78, 8. MB. 27, 131a (1343). vrîtach, Griesh. 2, 48. frehtag, Grätzer urk. of 1310. des vriegtages, S. Uolrich, 1488.

p. 125. ) OS. ---- These have to be guessed from the following later forms: I. sundach, Ssp. sondag, Pom. 1486. Klempin 488. ---- II. mandag, ibid. ---- III. dinsdag, Cöln. urk. of 1261. Höfer no. 5. dinstag, 1316, ib. p. 112; dynsdais, p. 277. dincedagh, Pom. urk. of 1306, p. 354. dinscdag, Magdeb. urk. of 1320, p. 142. dinstagh, Quedl. of 1325, p. 179. dingstdag, Ravnsbg. urk. of 1332, p. 258. dynstag, Siebertz no. 652. 688 (1315-43). dinxtdag, Ditm. landr. of 1447 ed. Michels. p. 32. dynsthedach, Detmar 2, 287. dinschedach 2, 34. dinghestedaghes, dingsted., dynsted., dyngesd. 2, 179. 210. 207. 142. dinxstedages, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 405-406. dingstedag, Hammerbröker recht. Did any Low German district in the Mid. Ages retain Tisdag? Scarcely: all seem to have forms beginning with din, agreeing with Nethl. dinsdag, and corrup. from the older disendach; hence our present dienstag. Dinstag appears as early as 1316 at Schleusingen, 1320-2 at Erfurt (Höfer p. 120. 146. 153). dingesdag, Klempin 488. ---- IV. gudinsdag, gudensdag, Höfer no. 6. 7. (1261-2). des mitwekens, Maltzan 2, 88. in deme mitwekene 2, 113. des mydweken, Hpt Ztschr. 5, 406. des middewekenes, Höfer 166 (in 1323 at Halberstadt). mitdwekenes 370 (in 1331). medewekes 360 (in 1324). middeweke, Klempin. ---- V. dunresdach, Ssp. donredag, Klempin. dunredagh, urk. of Maltzan, 2, 6. Hpt 5, 406. donredagh, Maltzan 2, 45. ----- VI. vridach, Ssp. frigdag, Klempin. ----- VII. sunavent, Ssp. 2, 66 (one MS. satersdach). sonnavend, Klempin. saterdag is Nethl. and Westph., not Saxon. saterstag, Seibertz 724a (1352). satirsdach, Marienlieder. Hpt 10, 80-1. saterstag, Spinnr. evang., Cöln 1538, title. In Freidank 169, 15, one MS. changes 'suones tac' into satersdach. soterdag, Firmenich 1, 301b; sorreschteg 1, 495 at Eupen.

M. Nethl. ----- I. sondach, Decker's Lekensp. 1, 38. ------ II. maendach, Decker ib. ----- III. dinxdach, Decker. disdag desdag, Coremans p. 49. disendaighes, Hedu p. 443. De klerk 1, 804. disendach, Uhl. 1, 415. ------ IV. woonsdach, Decker. ----- V. donredach, Decker. donderdach, Lanc. 13970. ----- VI. vridach, Decker. den vrindach, Lanc. 25310. sfrîndaghes, Maerl. 3, 284. sfrindaechs, De klerk 1, 708 in 1303. ------- VII. saterdach, Decker. In the Leven van Jezus p. 27-8. 74-5. 234 the Jewish notion of Sabbath is lamely rendered by saterdach.

p. 126. ) Fris. ----- III. tihsdi, tisdey, Hpt Ztschr. 1, 107. ------ VII. A fuller form 'sn-avend' occurs in the Gen. snavendes, Anhalt urk. of 1332, Höfer 163.

North-Fris. forms in Outzen, p. 38. ----- IV. Weadansdai, Landeskunde 4, 248. Winjsday in Silt, Müllenh. 167. ------ V. Türsdei and Tüsdei. ------ VII. in = evening, eve, as in 'gude e'en to ye,' Shaksp. good-en.

AS. ------ IV. Mercoris die, hoc est Wôdnesdag, Kemble 5, 94 (in 844).

OE. ----- III. tweisdaie. IV. wensdaie, Garner, Procdgs. p. 232.

ON. in Gulaþ. p. 9. ------III. Tysdagr. IV. Oðensdagr. V. Þorsdagr. VI. Freadagr. VII. þvatðagr.

Swed. ---- I. sunnundaghr, östg. (conf. p. 126 n.). VII. löghurdagh, östg.

Norw. ----- IV. mekedag. VI. Freadag, Dipl. Norv. vol. 3, no. 787 (in 1445).

Jut. ----- IV. Voensdag, woinsdau, Molb. dial. 653. VI. Freia. VII. Luora, Foersom, p. 12.

Angl. ----- IV. Vonsdaw.

p. 127 n. ) On the Roman altar in Swabia, see Stälin, 1, 111. One the circle of planetary gods, Lersch in Jb. d. Rheinlande iv. 183. v. 298-314. The 8 figures on the altar may signify the gods of nundinae. Ther Germ. week has Odin in the middle, his sons Tyr and Thor next to him: Mars, Mercury, Jupiter.

p. 129. ) Snorri too, in his Formâli, has interpretations and comparisons with the Bible and classical mythology. Freyr he identifies with Saturn (p. 217).

p. 130. ) The Ests, Finns and Lapps name the days thus: ---

Est. ----- I. pühhapääw, holy day. II. esmaspääw, first day. III. teisipääw, second day. IV. kesknäddel, (1) mid-week. V. nelyapääw, fourth day. VI. rede (redi), fast-day? VII. laupääw; poolpääw, half-day.

Finn. ----- I. sunnuntai. II. maanan. III. tiistai. IV. keskiwiycko. V. tuorstai. VI. peryandai; is this Perun's day displaced (conf. Perendan below)? or, as the Finns have no F, a corrup. of Fredag? (Prob. the latter, conf. Peryedag; and the Finns are fond of adding an N. ). VII. lauwandai.

Swed. Lapp. ------ I. ailek. II. manodag. III. tisdag. IV. kaska wakko. V. tuoresdag. VI. peryedag. VII. lawodag.

Norw. Lapp. ----- I. sodno beive. II. vuosarg. III. mangebarg. IV. guskvokko. VI. fastobeive fast-day, and peryedag.

Notes:

1. The Slavic nedélia, orig. Sunday, now means week. Back

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