The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 4 Sup.

Page 1

CHAPTER IV. - TEMPLES.

p. 67. ) For names compounded with alah, see Förstemann. Halazes-stat in Ratenzgowe (Hallstadt by Bamberg), MB. 28, 98 (yr. 889) seems a misreading for Halahes-stat; and Halazzes-stat 28, 192 (yr. 923) for Halahhes-stat. For the chap. in Baluze 1, 755 has Halax-stat, where Pertz 3, 133 has again Halaz-stat, but Bened. more correctly Alaga-stat. But even Pertz 3, 302 has Halax-stat. Dare we bring in the AS. ealgrian (tueri) and the Lat. arcere, arx? D. Sag. 319. Pictet in Origines 1, 227 connects alhs with Sanskr. alka. What means 'alle gassen und alhen' in the Limbg. chron. p.m. 5? With the Alcis in Tacitus conf. the Scythian korakoi, filioi daimonej = Orestes and Pylades, Lucian's Toxar. 7. D. Sag. 118.

AS. weoh, templum: weoh gesôhte, Cod. Exon. 244, 6. Donerswe in Oldenburg seems to mean D.'s temple; and Esch-wege in Hesse may be a corrup. of Esch-weh, though acc. to Förstem 2, 111 it was already in the 10th cent. Eskine-wag, -weg; conf. Wôdenes-wege, p. 152 and Oðins-ve, p. 159. Even in OHG. we find we for wih: za themo we (al. parawe) ploazit, Gl. Ker. 27. In ON. Vandils-ve, Sæm. 166a. Frös-vi, Dipl. Suecan. no. 1777; Götä-wi (Göte-vi) 1776. It is said of the gods: valda veom, Sæm. 41b. Skaði says: frâ mînom veom oc vöngom, 67a. Valhallar til, ok vess heilags 113a; does vess belong to ve, or stand for vers? In Sæm. 23b (F. Magn. p. 255n.) 'alda ve iarðar,' populorum habitaculum, is opp. to ûtve = ûtgarða, gigantum habitacula. The Goth. veihs, sacer, OHG. wîh, is wanting in OS., AS., and ON. Cote-wîh, nomen monasterii (Pertz. 7, 460), is afterw. Göttweih; conf. Ketweig, Beham 335, 31. Chetewic in Gerbert (Diemer's Pref. xxi.).

p. 68n. ) Ara = asa, ansa, is a god's seat, as the Goth. badi, OHG. petti, AS. bed mean both ara and fanum, D. Sag. p. 115. beod-gereordu (n. pl.), epulae, Cædm. 91, 27. ad apicem gemeinen gunbet, MB. 29a, 143 (yr. 1059). gumpette, Hess. Ztschr. 3, 70; conf. Gombetten in Hesse. Does the OHG. ebanslihti (Graff 6, 789) mean ara or area? O. Slav. kumir, ara, idolum; conf. Finn. kumarran, adoro, inclino me. On other Teut. words for altar, such as ON. stalli and the plur. hörgar, see D. Sag. 114-5.

p. 69. ) OHG. haruc seems preserved in Harahes-heim, Cod. Lauresh. 3, 187, and in Hargenstein, Panzer's Beitr. 1, 1; conf. Hercynius. AS. Besinga-hearh, Kemble no. 994. ON. hâtimbroðom hörgi roeðr, Sæm. 42a. hof mun ek kiosa, ok hörga marga 141a. Thors-argh, -aerg, -harg, now Thors-hälla, Hildebr. iii. D. Sag. 115. The hof sometimes coupled with hörgr occurs even in MHG. in the sense of temple, temple-yard: ze hofe geben (in atrium templi), Mar. 168, 42. ze hove giengen (atrium) 169, 30. den hof rûmen (temple) 172, 5; conf. ON. hofland, temple-land, Munch om Skiringssal 106-7. D. Sag. 116-7. Likewise garte, tûn, pl. tûnir, wiese, aue (p. 225) are used for holy places, Gr.alsoj.

p. 69. ) OHG. paro, AS. bearo, are supported by kiparida = nemorosa, which Graff 3, 151 assoc. with kipârida; by AS. bearewas, saltus, Haupt's Ztschr. 9, 454b, and 'bearo sette, weobedd worhte,' Cædm. 172, 7. Lactantius's antistes nemorum, luci sacerdos' is rendered 'bearwes bigenga, wudubearwes weard' 207, 27. 208, 7. Names of places: Parawa, Neugart. Cod. dipl. no. 30 (yr. 760); Barwithsyssel, Müllenh. Nordalb. stud. 1, 138; ON. Barey. The OHG. za themo parawe, Diut. 1, 150 is glossed on the margin by 'to deme hoen althere, to demo siden althere,' Goslarer bergg. 343.

p. 69 n.) OHG. luoc, specus, cubile, delubrum, Graff 2, 129. in luakirum, delubris, Diut. 1, 530a. lôh, lucus, Graff 2, 128. In Rudolf's Weltchr. occurs betelôch, lucus, pl. beteloecher. Notker's Cap. 143 distinguishes the kinds of woods as walden, forsten, lôhen. The Vocab. optim. p. 47a has: silva wilder walt, nemus schoener walt, lucus dicker walt, saltus hoher walt. Mommsen, Unterital. dial. 141, derives lucus from luere, hallow. There are hursts named after divine beings: Freckenhorst, Givekanhorst (conf. Freckastein, Givekanstên. ok þâr stendr enn Thôrsteinn, Landn. ii. 12). It comes of forest-worship that the gods are attended by wild beasts, Wuotan by wolf and raven, Froho by a boar.

p. 69. ) Worshipping in the still and shady grove was practised by many nations. 'Thou hast scattered thy ways to the strangers under every green tree' complains Jeremiah 3, 13. kluton alsoj iron Aqhnaihj, Od. 6, 321. en alsei dendrhenti foibou Apollwnoj 9, 200. alsea Persefonaihj 10, 509. alsoj upo skieron ekathbolou Apollwnoj 20, 278. Athenæus 4, 371-2, celebrates the cool of the sacred grove. inhorruit atrum majestate nemus, Claudian in Pr. et Olybr. 125 (on nemus, see p. 648). in tuo luco et fano, Plaut. Aulul. iv. 2, 8. lucus sacer, ubi Hesperidum horti, Pliny 5, 5. itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta ferarum, Æn.6, 179. nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, Hor. Od. i. 4, 11. nec magis auro fulgentia atque ebore, quam lucos et in iis silentia ipsa adoramus, Pliny 12, 1. proceritas silvae et secretum loci et admiratio umbrae fidem numinis facit, Seneca ep. 41. As the wood is open above, a hole is left in the top of a temple, conf. the Greek hypæthral temples: Terminus quo loco colebatur, super eum foramen patebat in tecto, quod nefas esse putarent Terminum intra tectum consistere, Festus sub v.; conf. Ov. Fasti 2, 671. Servius in Æn. 9, 448. The Celts unroofed their temples once a year (apostegaz.), Strabo 4, p. 198. A grove in Sarmatia was called alieuma qeou, piscatura dei, Ptol. 3, 5. The Abasgi in the Caucasus venerated groves and woods (alsh kai mlaj), and counted trees among their gods, Procop. 2, 471; conf. the prophetic rustle of the cypresses in Armenia (p. 1110). Even in the Latin poems of the MA. we find: Amoris nemus Paradisus, Carm. bur. 162. circa silvae medium locus est occultus, ubi viget maxime suus deo cultus 163. In Eckhart 186, 32 the Samaritan woman says, 'our fathers worshipped under the trees on the mountain.' In Troj. kr. 890: si wolden gerne hûsen ze walde ûf wilden riuten. Walther v. Rh. 64b: in einen schoenen grüenen walt, dar diu heidensche diet mit ir abgöten geriet (ruled?). In stories of the Devil, he appears in the forest gloom, e.g. Ls. 3, 256, perhaps because men still thought of the old gods as living there. Observe too the relation of home-sprites and wood-wives to trees, p. 509.

Worshipping on mountains is old and widely spread; conf. âs, ans (p. 25), and the Wuotans-bergs, Donners-bergs. Three days and nights the Devil is invoked on a mountain, Müllenh. no. 227. Mountain worship is Biblical: 'on this mountain (Gerizium),' John 4, 20; see Raumer's Palest. p. 113.

p. 73. ) Like the Donar's oak of Geismar is a large holy oak, said to have stood near Mülhausen in Thuringia; of its wood was made a chest, still shown in the church of Eichenried village, Grasshof's Mülh. p. 10.

p. 74. ) On thegathon, see Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 192, and Wilmaus' essay, Münst. 1857. summum et principem omn. deorum, qui apud gentes thegaton nuncupatur, Wilkens biogr. of St. Gerburgis; conf. Wigand's arch. 2, 206. tagaton discussed in Ritter's christl. phil. 3, 308. It is Socrate's daimonion, Plato's to agaqon, the same in Apul. apolog. p. m. 278. Can thegatho be for theodo, as Tehota is for Thiuda? Förstem. 1, 1148.

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