The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 3 Sup.

Page 1

CHAPTER III. - WORSHIP.

p. 29. ) For veneration of a deity the AS. has both weorðscipe reverentia, dignitas, and weorðung; the Engl. worship, strictly a noun, has become also a verb = weorðian. The christian teachers represented the old worship as diobules gelp inti zierida (pompa). In Isidore 21, 21. 55, 5 aerlôs stands for impius. Beside the honouring of God, we find 'das Meien êre,' Ms. 2, 32b, and 'duvels êre, Rose 11200. D. Sag. 71. Gote dienen, Nib. 787, 1. er forchte (feared) den Heilant, Roth 4415. Heartfelt devotion is expr. by 'mit inneclîchen muote,' Barl. 187, 16. andachtlîche 187, 36. 14. mit dem inneren gebete. die andâht fuor zum gibel aus, Wolkenst. p. 24.

p. 29. ) Among most nations, the Chinese being an exception worship finds utterance in prayer and sacrifice, in solemn transactions that give rise to festivals and hightides, which ought to be more fully described further on. Prayer and sacrifice do not always go together: betra er ôbedit enn se ofblôtit (al. ôblôtit), Sæm. 28b. The Chinese do not pray, and certainly, if God has no body and no speech, we cannot attribute an ear or hearing to him, conseq. no hearing of prayer. Besides, an almighty God must understand thoughts as easily as words. Prayers, the utterance of petition, gratitude and joy, arose in heathenism, and presuppose a divine form that hears. Odysseus prays to Athena: kluqi meu, nun dh per men akouson, epei paroj oupot akousaj raiomenou, Od. 6, 325. 13, 356. kluqi, anax 5, 445. Il. 16, 514; Poseidon and Apollo are addressed with the same formula. Gods are greeted through other gods: Veneri dicito multam meis verbis salutem, Plaut. Pœn. i. 2, 195. But, besides praying aloud, we also read of soft muttering, as in speaking a spell, Lasicz 48. qrhskeuein is supposed to mean praying half aloud, Creuzer 2, 285. Latin precari (conf. procus), Umbr. persnî (Aufrecht and Kirchhoff 2, 28. 167) answers to OHG. fergôn poscere, precari, N. Cap. 153, Sanskr. prach, Zend. perec. 'tases persnimu,' tacitus precare, pray silently, 'kutef persnimu,' caute precare, A. and K. 2, 168-9. 170. Sanskr. jap = submissa voce dicere, praesertim preces, Bopp. 135a; conf. jalp loqui, Lith. kalbu: faveas mihi, murmure dixit, Ov. Met. 6, 327 (p. 1224). ''ebete käuen,' chewing prayers, occurs in Bronner's Life 1, 475; 'stille gebete thauen,' distil, in Gessner's Works (Zurich 1770) 2, 133. 'gebet vrumen,' put forth, Gudr. 1133, 1. beten und himelspreken, Gefken beil. 116. daz gebet ist ein süezer bote (messenger) ze himele, Ernst 20. Or, prayer resounds: daz dîn bete erklinge, Walth. 7, 35. precibus deum pulsare opimis, Ermold. Nigell. 2, 273. Prayer gushes out, is poured out: alse daz gebet irgie, Ksrchr. 2172. M. Neth. gebed utstorten, Soester fehde p. 597; now, bede storten, preces fundere, like tranen st., lacrimas fundere. gepet ausgiessen, MB. 27, 353.

p. 29. ) Other words for praying: Grk. deomai I need, I ask, iketeuw and lissomai beseech. ON. heita â einn, vovere sub conditione contingenti: hêt â Thôr, vowed, Oldn. läseb. 7 (conf. giving oneself to a partic. god, Oðinn, p. 1018-9). OHG. harên clamare, anaharên invocare, N. Boëth. 146. OS. grôtian God, Hel. 144, 24. 145, 5. Does proskunew come from kunew I kiss (as adoro from os oris, whence osculum), and is it conn. with the hand-kissing with which the Greeks worshipped the sun; thn ceira kusantej, Lucian 5, 133; or from kuwn? conf. proskunej, fawning flatterers, Athen. 6, 259, see Pott's Zählmeth. 255. Aspazesqai is also used of dogs fawning upon a master.

p. 30. ) A suppliant is not only bëtoman in OHG., but beteman in MHG. Hartm. büchl. 1, 263. Prayer, our gebet, is a fem. bete: mîne flêhe und mîne bete, die wil ich êrste senden mit herzen und mit henden, Trist. 123, 22 (praying with hands, folded?). The MHG. bëten is always joined with an, as prepos. or prefix: an welchen got er baete, Servat. 1347. ein kreftige stat, dô man diu apgot anebat, Karl 10a. Is it used only of false gods? conf. Pfeiffer's Barl. p. 446.

p. 30.) The MHG. flêhen supplicare takes the Dative: deme heiligin Geiste vlên, Wernh. v. Nioder-rh. 37, 17, etc. But with the Accus.: den tôren flêhen, Freid. 83, 3. alle herren flêhen, Walther 28, 33. fleha ze himele frumen, N. Boeth. 271; conf. 'gebet vrumen' above. Eucesqai also takes a Dat.: Dii, Od. 20, 97. Aqhnh 2, 261. Poseidawni 3, 43. epeucesqai Artemidi 20, 60; conf. euch (or en eucaij, en logoij) presbeuein, froimiazomai Æsch. Eum. 1. 20. 21.

p. 31.) Can Goth. aíhtrôn and OHG. eiscôn be from the aigan, and mean wish to have? OHG. diccan occurs in MHG. too: digete gein Gote, Altd. bl. 2, 149. an in gediget, prays, Kdh. Jesu 91, 4. underdige supplicatio, Serv. 3445.

p. 31.) Postures in prayer. Standing: diu stêt an ir gebete in der kapellen hie bî, Iw. 5886. an daz gebet stân, Zappert p. 23. Bowing: diofo ginigen, bend low, O. iii. 3, 28. sîn nîgen er gein himel gap, made his bow, Parz. 392, 30. Hagen bows to the merwomen, Nib. 1479, 1. As the road is kindly saluted, so contrariwise: ich wil dem wege iemer-mêre sîn vîent swâ dû hin gâst, be foe to every way thou goest, Amur 2347. The Finnic kumarran, bending, worship, is done to the road (tielle), moon (kuulle), sun (päiwällä), Kalew. 8, 103. 123. 145. diu bein biegen = pray, Cod. Vind. 159 no. 35. On kneeling, bending, conf. Zapp. p. 39. ze gebete gevie, Ksrchr. 6051. ze Gote er sîn gebete lac, Pantal. 1582. er viel an sîn gebet, Troj. kr. 27224. viel in die bede, int gebede, Maerl. 2, 209. 3, 247. dô hup er ane zu veniende: wo ime daz houbit lac, dô satzte her di fuze hin, Myst. 1, 218. legde hleor on eorðan, Cædm. 140, 32. Swed. bönfalla, to kneel in prayer. During a sacrifice they fell to the ground riptontej ej wdaj, Athen. p. 511. The Ests crawl bareheaded to the altar, Estn. verh. 2, 40. Other customs: the Indians danced to the Sun, Lucian, ed. Lehm. 5, 130. Roman women, barefoot, with dishevelled hair, prayed Jupiter for rain. The hands of gods are kissed, conf. proskunein. In contrast with looking up to the gods, anw bleyaj, Moschus epigr., the eyes are turned away from sacred objects. Odysseus, after landing, is to throw back into the sea, with averted look, the krhdemnon lent to him by Ino, aponosfi trapesqai, Od. 5, 350. tarbhsaj d eterwse bal ommata, mh qeoj eih, 16, 179.

p. 32.) Uncovering the head: huic capite velato, illi sacrificandum est nudo, Arnob. 3, 43. pilleis capitibus inclinarent detractis, Eckehardus A.D. 890 (Pertz 2, 84). tuot ûwere kugelen abe, und bitit Got, Myst. 1, 83, 25. son chapel oste, Ren. 9873; conf.'s chäppli lüpfe, Hebel 213. helme und ouch diu hüetelîn diu wurden schiere ab genomen, Lanz. 6838. sînen helm er abe bant (unbound), und sturzt' in ûf des schildes rant; des hüetels wart sîn houbet blôz, wan sîn zuht war vil grôz, Er. 8963. In 1 Cor. 11, 4. 5, a man is to pray and prophesy with covered head, a woman with uncovered, see Vater's note. Penance is done standing naked in water, G. Ab. 1, 7; conf. Pref. lxx. The monk at early morn goes to the Danube to draw water, wash and pray, Vuk ii. 7, beg. of Naod Simeun. The Greeks went to the seashore to pray: Thlemacoj d apaneuqe kiwn epi qina qalasshj, Od. 2, 260. bh d akewn para qina ............. apaneuqe kiwn hraq o geraioj Apollwni anakti, Il. i. 34.

p. 33. ) Arsenius prays with uplifted hands from sunset to sunrise, Maerl. 3, 197. in crucis modum coram altari se sternere, Pertz 8, 258; conf. ordeal of cross. Praying 'mit zertânen armen, zertrenten armen, Zellw. urk. no. 1029. 775. Hands are washed before praying: ceiraj viyamenoj polihj aloj, in the hoary sea, Od. 2, 261. 12, 336. Helgafell, þângat skyldi engi maðr ôþveginn (unwashen) lîta, Landn. 2, 12.

p. 33. ) Carij, gratia, is also translated anst. Goth. anstái audahafta, gratia plena! OHG. fol Gotes ensti, O. i. 5, 18. enstio fol, Hel. 8, 8; conf. 'gebôno fullu' in Tat., and AS. mid gife gefylled. For ginâda Otfried uses a word peculiar to himself, êragrehti, Graff 2, 412. The cuneif. inscr. have constantly: 'Auramazdâ miya upastám abara,' Oromasdes mihi opem ferebat; 'vashnâ Auramazdaha,' gratiâ Oromasdis.

p. 34. ) Other ON. expressions for prayer: blôtaði Oðinn, ok biðr hann lîta â sitt mâl, Hervar. saga. c. 15. ôreiðom augom lîtið ockr þinnig, ok gefit sitjondom sigr, Sæm. 194a. mâl ok mannvit gefit ockr maerom tveim, ok laeknis-hendur meðan lifom, ibid. ---- As the purpose of prayer and sacrifice is twofold, so is divine grace either mere favour to the guiltless, or forgiveness of sin, remission of punishment. Observe in Hel. 3, 18: thiggean Herron is huldi, that sie Hevan-cuning lêdes âlêti (ut Deus malum averteret, remitteret), though Luke 1, 10 has merely orare, and O. i. 4, 14 only ginâda beitôta. He is asked to spare, to pity: ilhqi, Od. 3, 380. 16, 184. feideo d hmewn 16, 185. su de ilewj genou, Lucian 5, 292. 'taivu ainomen Tapio,' be entreated, Kalev. 7, 243; conf. tode moi krhhnon eeldwr, Il. 1, 41. Od. 17, 242. (Kl. schr. 2, 458.)

The Hindu also looks to the East at early morning prayer, hence he calls the South daxa, daxima, the right. In praying to Odin one looks east, to Ulf west, Sv. forns. 1, 69. solem respiciens is said of Boiocalus, Tac. ann. 13, 55. Prayer is directed to the sun, N. pr. bl. 1, 300, and there is no sacrificing after sunset, Geo. 2281. On the other hand, 'Norðr horfa dyr' occurs in Sæm. 7b. Jötunheimr lies to the North, Rask afh. 1, 83. 94. D. Sag. 981-2.

p. 35n. ) Mock-piety: wolt ir den heiligen die zehen (toes) abbeissen? Bronner 1, 295. alle heiligen fressen wollen, Elis. v. Orl. 251. götze-schlecker, Stald. 1, 467. In thieves' lingo a Catholic is tolefresser, bilderfresser, Thiele 317a. magliavutts, götzenfresser, Carisch 182b. Whence comes Ital. bachettone? conf. bigot, Sp. beato. die alte tempeltrete, Spil v. d. 10 jungfr. in Steph. 175. du rechte renne umme id olter, you regular Run-round-the-altar, Mone schausp. 2, 99. frömmchen, as early as Er. Alberus Praec. vitae ac mor. 1562, p. 90a.

p. 35. ) On Sacrifice, conf. Creuzer symb. 1, 171. 'opphir = vota,' Gl. Sletst. 6, 672. Gifts = sacrifices, p. 58. si brâhten ir obfer und antheiz, Diemer 179, 25. In Latin the most general phrase is rem divinam facere = sacrificare; we also find commovere, obmovere, Aufr. u. Kirchh. 2, 165. Victima, the greater sacrifice, is opposed to hostia, the less, Fronto p. 286. To 'oblationes für allen gebilden (before the statues and shrines), ut tenor est fundationis, cedens pastori' (found. at Rüden, Westph. 1421, Seibertz Quellen d. Westf. gesch. 1, 232) answers the Germ. wîsunga visitatio, oblatio, Graff 1, 1068, from wîsôn, visitare. wîsod = oblei, visitatio, Schmeller 4, 180. The Swiss now say wîsen for praying at the tombs of the dead, Stald. 2, 455.

p. 35. ) On blôt, blôstr see Bopp's Comp. Gr. 1146. Goth. Guþ blôtan, Deum colere, 1 Tim. 2, 10. In ON., beside gods' sacrifices, there are âlfa blôt, p. 448, dîsa blôt, p. 402 (and we may add the blôt-risi on p. 557). blôt-haug and stôrblôt, Fornm. sög. 5, 164-5. sleikja blôt-bolla, Fagrsk. p. 63. A proper name Blôtmâr, acc. Blôtmâ (-mew, the bird), Landn. 3, 11 seems to mean larus sacrificator, = the remarkable epithet blotevogel, A.D. 1465, Osnabr. ver. 2, 223; or is it simply 'naked bird'? conf. spottvogel, speivogel, wehvogel (gallows-bird, etc.). ON. blôtvargr = prone to curse, for blôta is not only consecrate, but execrate.

p. 37n. ) Mit der blotzen haun, H. Sachs iii. 3, 58c. eine breite blötze, Chr. Weise, Drei erzn. 194. der weidplotz, hunting knife, plötzer, Vilmar in Hess. Ztschr. 4, 86. die bluote, old knife, Woeste.

p. 37. ) Antheiz a vow, but also a vowed sacrifice, as when the Germans promised to sacrifice if they conquered, Tac. Ann. 13, 57, or as the Romans used to vow a ver sacrum, all the births of that spring, the cattle being sacrificed 20 years after, and the youth sent abroad, Nieb. 1, 102. ir obfer unde antheiz, Diemer 179, 25. gehêton wîg-weorðunga, Beow. 350. aerþon hine deáð onsægde, priusquam mors eum sacrificaret, Cod. Exon. 171, 32; conf. MHG. iuwer lîp ist ungeseit, afatoj, Neidh. 47, 17. What means OHG. frêhtan? (frêhan? frech, freak?). N. Boeth. 226 says of Iphigenia: dia Chalchas in friskinges wîs frêhta (Graff 3, 818); conf. ON. frêtt vaticinium, divinatio (Suppl. to p. 94), and AS. 'on blôte oððe on fyrhte,' Schmid 272, 368, where fear or fright is out of the question.

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