The Northern Way

Grimm's Teutonic Mythology

Chap. 2 Sup.

Page 1

CHAPTER II. - GOD.

p. 13-15. ) The word god is peculiar to the Germanic languages. Guitecl. 1, 31: terre ou lon claime Dieu got. On goddess see beginning of Ch. XIII. diu gotheit occurs already in Fundgr. 2, 91. In the Venetian Alps, God is often called der got with the Art., Schmeller's Cimbr. Wtb. 125. Is the Ital. iddio from il dio, which does not account for iddia goddess, or is it abbreviated from domen-ed-dio, which, like O. Fr. domnedeu, damledeu, damredeu, comes from the Lat. voc. domine deus? Conf. Diez, Altrom. Sprachdenkm. p. 62.

Got is not the same word as guot, though the attempt to identify them is as old as OHG. (yet conf. the Pref. to E. Schulze's Gothic Glossary, xviii.): 'got unde guot plurivoca sint. taz (what) mit kote wirt, taz wirt mit kuote,' Notker's Boeth. 172. Almost as obscure as the radical meaning of god is that of the Slav. bogh, some connecting it with Sanskr. b'agas, sun, Höfer's Zeitschr. 1, 150. In the Old-Persian cuneiform writing 4, 61 occurs bagâha, dei, from the stem baga, Bopp's Comp. Gram. 452; Sanskr. bhagavat is adorandus. Hesychius has bagaioj, Zeuj frugioj (conf. Spiegel's Cuneif. inscr. 210. Windischmann 19. 20. Bopp, Comp. Gr. 452. 581. Miklosich 3). Boh. buze, bozatko, Pol. boze, bozatko, godkin, also genius, child of luck. Boh. buzek, Pol. bozek, idol.

Beside guda, gods, John 10, 34-5, we have guþa, Gal. 4, 8. The change of þ to d in derivation is supported by afgudei impietas, gudalaus impius, gudisks divinus. Neuter is daz apgot, Mos. 33, 19. abgote sibeniu, Ksrchr. 65. appitgot, Myst. 1, 229. Yet, beside the neut. abcotir, stands appetgöte (rh. kröte), Troj. kr. 27273, and abgote, Maria 149, 42; also masc. in Kristes büchelîn of 1278 (cod. giss. no. 876): 'bette an den appitgot.' abgotgobide in Haupt 5, 458 is for abgotgiuobida. In the Gothic þô galiuga-guda for eidwla, 1 Cor. 10, 19. 20, where the Greek has no article, we may perceive a side-glance at Gothic mythology; conf. Löbe gloss. 76b. The ON. goð is not always idolum merely, but sometimes numen, as goð öll, omnia numina, Sæm. 67b. siti Hâkon með heiðin goð, Hâkonarm. 21. gauð, usually latratus, is a contemptuous term for a numen ethnicorum; conf. geyja, to bark, said of Freyja, p. 7 note.

Our götze occurs in the Fastn. Sp. 1181. 1332, where the carved 'goezen' of the painter at Würzburg are spoken of. Gods' images are of wood, are split up and burnt, Fornm. sög. 2, 163. v. d. Hagen's Narrenbuch, 314. Platers leben, 37. So Diagoras burns his wooden Hercules (Melander Jocos. 329), and cooks with it; conf. Suppl. to p. 108 n. Agricola no. 186 explains ölgötz as 'a stick, a log, painted, drenched with oil,' Low Germ. oligötze; but it might be an earthen lamp or other vessel with an image of the god, Pröhle xxxvi. In Thuringia ölgötze means a baking.

p. 15. ) To the distortions of God's name may be added: gots hingender gans! Geo. v. Ehingen, p. 9. potz verden angstiger schwininer wunden! Manuel, Fastn. sp. 81. Er. Alberus uses 'bocks angst,' H. Sachs 'botz angst.' Is potz, botz from bocks (p. 995)? Similar adaptations of Dieu, Raynouard sub v. deus; culbieu, Méon. 4, 462. Ital. sapristi for sacristi.

p. 15. ) The addition of a Possess. Pron. to the name of God recalls the belief in a guardian spirit of each individual man (p. 875). The expressions not yet obsolete, 'my God! I thank my God, you may thank your God, he praised his God, etc.,' in Gotthelf's Erzähl. 1, 167 are also found much earlier: hevet ghesworen bi sinen Gode, Reinaert 526. ganc dînem Gote bevolen, Mor. 3740. er lobte sînen Got, Greg. 26, 52. durch meinen Gott, Ecke (Hagen) 48. saget iuwem Gote lop, Eilh. 2714. daz in mîn Trehtîn lône, Kolocz. 186. gesegen dich Got mîn Trehtîn, Ls. 3, 10. je le feré en Mondieu croire, Renart 3553. 28465. Méon 2, 388. son deable, Ren. 278. 390. Conf. 'Junonem meam iratam habeam,' Hartung, genius.

The 'God grant, God knows' often prefixed to an interrogative, Gram. 3, 74, commits the decision of the doubtful to a higher power; conf. 'wëre Got, Gott behüte,' Gram. 3, 243-4. Got sich des wol versinnen kan, Parz. 369, 3; conf. 'sit cura deum.' daz sol Got niht en-wellen, Er. 6411. daz enwelle Got von himele, Nib. 2275, 1. nu ne welle Got, En. 64, 36. ---- Other wishes: sô sol daz Got gebieten, Nib. 2136, 4. hilf Got, Parz. 121, 2. nu hilf mir, hilferîcher Got 122, 26; conf. 'ita me deus adjuvet, ita me dii ament, amabunt,' Ter. Heaut. iv. 2, 8. 4, 1. Got hüete dîn, Parz. 124, 17, etc. Got halde iuch 138, 27. Got lôn dir 156, 15. Got troeste iuch des vater mîn 11, 2. Got grüeze iuch, Iw. 5997. The freq. formulas 'God bless thee, greet thee,' addressed espec. to wine. Often in MHG., 'be it God who': Got sî der daz wende; der in ner' (heal); der uns gelücke gebe, Er. 8350. 6900. Hartm. Erst. b. 1068. --- (Many new examples of 'wilkomen Got und mir'ð are here omitted.) sît mir in Gote wilkomen, Pass. 34, 92. im und den göten (gods) willekomen, Troj. kr. 23105. God alone: Got willekume here von Berne, Dietr. Drachenk. 60a. Me and my wife: willekomen mir und ouch der frouwen mîn, MS. 1, 57b. bien venuz mîner frouwen unde mir, Parz. 76, 12.

The Supreme Being is drawn into other formulas: dankent ir und Gote, Lanz. 4702. des danke ich dir unde Gote, Flore 5915. Got und iu ze minnen (for the love of), Greg. 3819. nû lâz ich alle mîne dinc an Godes genâde unde dîn, Roth. 2252. To intensify an assertion: ich fergihe (avow) Got unde iu, Griesh. pred. 2, 71. nein ich und Got, Ls. 2, 257; like the heathenish 'Oden och jag.' daz er sich noch Got erkennet, Walth. 30, 7. Got und ouch die liute, Greg. 271. Got und reht diu riten dô în ze heile, Trist. (Massm.) 176, 26. 177, 2. We still speak of complaining to God and the world. One could not but love her, 'da half kein gott und kein teufel,' Höfer, Lorelei 234. So, 'to her and love': ich hân gesungen der vil lieben und der Minne, Neifen 13, 37. frou Minne und ir, vil sælic wîp 20, 33. ich wil dir und deinem gaul zusaufen, Garg. 240b.

p. 17. ) God has human attributes: par les iaus Dieu, Ren. 505; so, Freyr lîtr eigi vinar augum til þîn, Fornm. s. 2, 74. par les pies quide Diu tenir, Méon Fabl. 1, 351. wan dô Got hiez werden ander wîp, dô geschuof er iuwern lîp selbe mit sîner hant, Flore 2, 259. The Finns speak of God's beard. He wears a helmet, when he is wrapt in clouds? conf. helot-helm, p. 463, Grîmnir pileatus, p. 146, and Mercury's hat; den Gotes helm verbinden, MsH. 3, 354b; conf. the proper name Gotahelm, Zeuss trad. Wizemb. 76, like Siguhelm, Friduhelm. As Plato makes God a shepherd, Wolfram makes him a judge, Parz. 10, 27. God keeps watch, as 'Mars vigilat,' Petron. 77; conf. Mars vigila, Hennil vigila (p. 749). He creates some men himself: Got selbe worht ir süezen lîp, Parz. 130, 23; gets honour by it: ir schöenes lîbes hât Got iemer êre, MS. 1, 143a; shapes beauty by moonlight: Diex qui la fist en plaine lune, Dinaux's Trouveres Artésiens 261; feels pleasure: dar wart ein wuof, daz ez vor Got ze himel was genaeme, Lohengr. 71. in (to them) wurde Got noch (nor) diu werlt iemer holt, Dietr. Drach. 119a. So in O. Norse: Yggr var þeim lîðr, Sæm. 251a; conf. 'unus tibi hic dum propitius sit Jupiter, tu istos minutos deos flocci feceris,' and the cuneif. inscr. 'Auramazdá thuvám dushta biya,' Oromasdes tibi amicus fiat.

p. 17-8 n. ) God's diligence: examples like those in Text.

p. 18. ) Many new examples of God's 'anger, hatred, etc.' are here omitted. --- Unser gote sint sô guot, daz si dînen tumben muot niht râchen mit einer donre-strâle, Barl. 207, 13. 'Got haz den lesten!' sprâchen die dâ vluhen hin (God hate the hindmost, cried the fugitives), Ottoc. 76a. sô in Got iemer hazze, MsH. 3, 195b. daz in Got gehoene, dishonour, Lanz. 3862. er bat, daz Got sînen slac über in vil schiere slüege, very soon smite, Turl. krone 92; conf. qeoblabhj, Herod. 1, 127. Got velle si beide, make them fall, Iw. 6752. ich wil daz mich Got velle und mir schende den lîp, Flore 1314. Got si schende, MsH. 3, 187a. fort mit dir zu Gottes boden, Weise comöd. 39. Got rech' ez über sîn kragen, Ottoc. 352a. so muoze mig Got wuorgen, Karlm. 368. nû brennet mich der Gotes zan (tooth) in dem fiur, Tôdes gehugde 679. sô entwîche mir Got, Flore 5277. Got ist an mir verzaget, Parz. 10,30. ist Got an sîner helfe blint, oder ist er dran betoubet (deaved, daft), 10, 20. die göte gar entsliefen, Albr. Tit. 2924.

p. 20. ) The irrisio deorum, ON. goð-gâ (Pref. liii. and p. 7n.) reaches the height of insult in Laxdæla-s. 180. Kristni-s. cap. 9; OHG. kot-scelta blasphemia, MHG. gotes schelter. Conf. the abusive language of Kamchadales to their highest god Kutka, Klemm 2, 318. nû schilte ich mîniu abgot, scold my false gods, Lament 481. sînen zorn huob er hin ze Gote: 'rîcher Got unguoter!' Greg. 2436-42. sô wil ich iemer wesen gram den goten, En. 7985. The saints scold (as well as coax) God, Keisersb. omeis 12d. wâfen schrîen über (cried shame upon) Gotes gewalt, Wigal. 11558. Got, dâ bistu eine schuldec an (alone to blame), Iw. 1384. Charles threatens him: Karles tença a Dieu, si confust son voisin, 'jamais en France n'orra messe à matin,' Aspr. 35a. hé, saint Denis de France, tu somoilles et dorz, quant fauz tes homes liges tiens en est li gran torz, Guitecl. 2, 156. nemt iuwer gote an ein seil und trenket si, drench them, Wh. 1, 83a. tröwet (believes) als dann S. Urban auch, wenn er niht schafft gut wein, werd' man ihn nach den alten brauch werffen in bach hinein, Garg. pref. 10. In the Ksrchr. 14737 Charles threatens St. Peter: und ne mache dû den blinden hiute niht gesunden, dîn hûs ich dir zestôre, dînen widemen ich dir zevuore. God is defied or cheated: biss Gott selbst kompt (to punish us), haben wir vogel und nest weggeraumbt, Garg. 202a.

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