The Northern Way

Commentary To the Germanic Laws and Medieval Documents

Chapter VII

(Page 1)


In Holder's Altceltischer Sprachschatz LL. veredus "posthorse" is marked down as of Celtic origin. But the Romans derived the institution of the posts from Central Asia, specifically referred to by Herodotus as of Persian origin. (1) Indeed, Persian barid "veredus, courier, messenger, running footman, a measure of two parasangs of twelve miles," baridan "to send a messenger" is unquestionably older than Lat. veredus, for it is based on Assyr. paradu "to hasten, impetuous," puridu "messenger, posthaste," which are enormously older than Persian barid or Lat. veredus. (2) Our interest lies in the vicissitudes of veredus in Europe. (3)

The provincials, hence also the German colonists in Roman territory, were heavily taxed for the maintenance of highways by being obliged to furnish certain numbers of veredi, swift horses, and paraveredi, heavy draught horses carrying military supplies and other fiscal property. References in the Theodosian Code show that in the fifth century and possibly earlier the obligation to furnish veredi was commuted in the provinces to a pecuniary contribution, while the heavier draught horses seem to have been supplied for a long period afterwards. In and about Rome, possibly through all of Italy, a similar exchange took place by substituting fodder for the older veredi, so that we get references in Cassiodorus to paraveredi et annonae, (4) and it seems from the context that certain emoluments of the judges, called pulveratica, possibly traveling expenses, were in Italy in the sixth century abolished in favor of a supply of fodder for the paraveredi. (5) Indeed, we have not only here, but also in another passage, the specific statement that according to an old law a three days' supply of provision is supplied to the judges and nothing more. (6) This annonae is included in the common technical term apparatus, (7) which in the Frankish immunities quoted farther below is referred to as parata. The veredi were still in use for rapid communication, but the ordinary Goths and Romans were not permitted to use them for private purposes, (8) and these horses were apparently supplied by the state, for the Spaniards, who furnished the fast horses to the Roman government, were provoked when they were asked also to supply the usual paraveredi. (9) It was, indeed, Spain where the fast horses had been procured since the fourth century, (10) and even as late as the ninth century the Spaniards were expected to supply veredi. (11) Hence the highways are in Spain called via de vereda. (12)

Louis I of Germany, apparently influenced by the contemporaneous revival of the Spanish supply of horses to his brother, uses the expression veredi aut veredarii in a German formula of a document, (13) but this formula is not used in any other document that has come down to us. But the combination "veredos vel paraveredos exigere" occurs sufficiently often, to show that the old Roman distinction between the swift and draught horses was not entirely forgotten. (14) We find, however, here freda, as well as veredos, and this form appears as freda, frida, fridda, fretus, etc., in the formula "freda exigere" in hundreds of Frankish immunities from the seventh century on. (15) That the Frankish immunity is based on the Roman immunities is proved not only by their identity in spirit, but also in phraseology, for where the Roman law "De immunitate concessa" of 365 speaks of "vectigalia vel caetera eiusmodi quae inferri fisco moris est, sibi adserant esse concessa" (16) the Merovingian documents have the equivalent fredi concessi. (17) Freda is not derived from inferre, the technical term for "paying the tax or revenue," because both in Italy and in France inferendum had the meaning of "a special tax not included in the immunity," (18) hence it may be found in the same document with freda. (19) This inferendum was distinctly a yearly tribute and as such might be abolished, (20) and yet the influence of inferenda on vereda, so as to change it to freda (which, however, is not a yearly tribute but a special tax) is not excluded, for it occurs already in a document of the year 562, where it has distinctly the meaning of any revenue that may be included in the immunity. (21)

In the Lex romana raetica curiensis the Lat. "mulcta" and "sumtus vel expensae litis" of the Interpretatio of the Theodosian Code are translated by fretum, (22) i.e., here fretum has the meaning of "judicial fee, fine." But there are two passages where fretum refers to the "principale negotium" of the Code, (23) and these demand a special investigation. We find in one of these passages a reference to two kinds of judges, one called "publicus," the other "privatus." As the public judge is invariably mentioned in the Frankish immunities as the one who is not to exact the fredum, nor demand other contributions, it is evident that his usual function is that of collecting or causing to collect such revenues for the state. This is borne out by the specific statement in the Raetian laws that the public judges are those who sit in fiscal cases and exact the revenue, (24) where the corresponding Interpretatio speaks of "exactores." They also attend to criminal cases, (25) even of churchmen. (26) In the beginning of the sixth century this judge was still called by the old name rector provinciae, (27) whose functions had previously been identical with those of the iudex publicus. This latter name was appropriate for him even at that time for he was called "iudex" and also had the supervision of "opera publica." (28)

The various immunities from the iudex publicus are immunities against the competency of his court. Thus, in addition to those mentioned above by Cassiodorus, we may cite the immunity from maintaining the court house, from the mansionaticum, which was subject to his jurisdiction by a law of the year 369. (29) If we now turn to the first of the two passages in the Raetian laws, we find that it is not permissible to pay the fretum to the junior judge, because the iudex publicus, with whom the "principale negotium" lies, is alone entitled to collect the fretum. We have already observed that in Italy the annonae had taken the place of the older contribution of veredi, and that these were used for the judge's fees. This is distinctly implied in a law of 383, where the judges are not permitted to exact from the provincials anything more than food and fodder. (30) In spite of the prohibition to exact horses, the Merovingians, as the documents show, not only exacted them, but also the pecuniary commutation, the fredum, for the veredi, or the annonae of the Italians, nay, the Carolingians found it possible to tax the Spaniards, not only with the ancient veredi, but also with the fredum. (31)

In the Lex ribuaria it is the judex fiscalis, that is, again the judex publicus, who collects the fretum, of which one third is paid over to the fiscus, "in order that the peace may be lasting." (32) The same reference to the maintenance of peace is found in the composition of the fredum in the Lex Baiuwariorum, (33) but here the fredum includes surety, fideiussor, and pay, so that it is obvious that pro fredo means "for the keeping of the peace," hence a surety alone may be a fredum. (34) Wherever, therefore, the combination pro fredo occurs, nearly always to be paid "in fisco" or "in publico," (35) we have a reference to the maintenance of peace, a duty which in the fifth and following centuries was left to the great body of judges, immediately below the rectores provinciae, who were known as defensores or assertores pacis (36) and who were by special regal authority invested among the Visigoths with the right of "making peace." (37)

The Visigothic laws, as codified, have undergone considerable modifications from their Roman origin in the fifth century, but even through all the changes it is possible to notice that the old evectio veredorum, the furnishing of horses for the judges and bailiffs, lay at the foundation of at least a part of their fees. In Theudis' law of 546 the bailiffs are supposed to furnish their own horses while executing orders, that is, summoning a party, but they reimburse themselves from the person in whose interest they travel, by charging a solidus for each horse, four being the maximum allowed. (38) The Lex Visigothorum seems to have here an older text, for while there is the same reference to the bailiff's horses, nothing whatsoever is said about the pecuniary commutation. The interesting part of this latter law is the one which says that these horses are "for the road and dignity," so that where in the east the reference is to the maintenance of the peace, we have here a similar provision for the maintenance of dignity. (39) If we now go back to the fifth century we come to an intermediate time when the Visigoths, whether in Spain or in southern France, must have considered the commutation of the older veredus as intended for the maintenance of peace or dignity. Indeed, the judges are specifically referred to by Cassiodorus as dignitates. (40) This designation is apparently not older than the end of the fifth century, whereas the use of annonae or apparatus for the judge's fees dates at least from the end of the fourth century.

We have accordingly two groups of derivatives in the Gothic language, from veredus towards the end of the fifth century. The first, in accordance with the designations assertor pacis and dignitas, current at the time, produces Goth. ga-wairthi "peace," wairths "worthy, dignified, worth, price," and from these are derived ONorse verðr, AS. weorð, OFrisian werth "worth," Welsh gwerth "price," Lithuanian vertas, OPrussian werths "worthy," OBulgarian vrêd "harm," originally, as still in Croatian, etc., "worth." The Roman reda was originally a light carriage, especially adapted for the use of couriers (41) and it is not at all improbable that as such it was really of Gallic origin, as surmised by Roman writers. But veredus was already known to Martial in the year 101 as a fast hunting horse, hence the use of veredus, though not recorded, must popularly be much older, to have lost its original meaning of "posthorse." Now Rostowzew and Preisigke have shown conclusively that the Persian post existed uninterruptedly in the east from the time of Herodotus and Xenophon, (42) and the document of the year 259 BC, which gives an account of the post in Ptolemaic Egypt shows that the Persian terms for various parts of the service introduced into Egypt during the Persian domination, have reached Rome and the West through a Greek transformation of the vocabulary. This explains at once why we meet in the cursus publicus of the fourth century AD with what otherwise would seem to be hybrid words, such as paraveredus and parangaria. If then veredus could have entered the Latin language only through the Greek, we at once get the Greek beredoj or beraidoj as a much older term, which through an intermediary bredoj would produce the recorded redh, redion hence Latin reda "chariot," and through a form eredoj the other forms eridia, erwdia "chariot," actually recorded by Hesychius. That bredoj, that is, #redoj actually existed cannot, as is generally done, be referred to the Semito-Egyptian marka buthah, but is a transformation of bredoj to breoj, bereoj, which again are not hypothetical forms, for berrhj "runner," berreuei "he runs" are recorded by Hesychius. Therefore there is absolutely no reason for deriving reda from the Celtic, for which there is no other authority than Quintilian's but we must consider it as directly derived from the Greek of Ptolemaic Egypt.

While all the languages have derivatives from this red- distinctly referring to the postroads, the Gothic has no other meaning for this group than that of the current substitute for the supply of posthorses by the apparatus or parata, (43) which, however, the other languages also record. While the Gothic has raidjan, ga-raidjan "to arrange, prepare," ga-raideins "arrangement," ga-raiths "arranged, determined," OHG. has reita "vereda, (44) reda, chariot," rîtari, ritari "horseman, rider," rîtan "ride," reiti "paratus," gareiti "biga, falera, quadriga," AS rád "riding, journey, way," rad "cart, chariot," rídan "to ride," ridda "knight, rider," raed, hraed, geraed "swift, quick, ready," ONorse rîða "to ride," greiða "to make ready," etc., OIrish riadaim "I drive," reid, OWelsh ruid, OBreton roed "plain, smooth." From this group cannot be separated Goth. ga-redan "to have a mind to," for in the compounds ur-redan, faura-ga-redan this redan has the meaning "arrange, determine." This at once connects ONorse ráða, AS. ráedan, OHG. râtan "advice," etc., with it. In the German gerät "advice, tool, harness" we have the two meanings connected. In the Slavic languages we have two series, rad- and rend- , which belong here. The first, giving Russian rad "prepared, glad," Polish rada "advice," etc., is obviously derived from the German. The nasalised form, which, however, in Lithuanian and Lettish also occurs unnasalised, is unquestionably older. We have OBulgarian redu, Bulg. red, Pol. rzad "order," Lith. rinda "row," redas "order," Let. redit, rinda, rist, ridu "to arrange."

The positive proof of the relation of this group of words to veredus in the sense of "apparatus, parata" is given by its presence in the Romance languages exclusively in the sense of "apparatus, parata," that is, of "equipage, harness, supply or horses for work," etc. We find here the LLatin forms corredum and arredum and its many derivatives. We have arredio "apparatus bellicus" recorded by Ducange in the 14 century, but the Italian arredare, Spanish arrear, OFrench arréer, Provençal arredar, arrezar "to equip, adorn" prove the existence of the word before. Arezamentum "equipment" is recorded in the 13. cent. (45) It is this arez-, more properly arrez-, which has produced arnes "baggage, equipment, household goods," etc., (46) more especially "equipment of a horse, harness." (47) Similarly corredum is a close translation of "apparatus" and more especially refers to the contribution in kind due to the sovereign when passing through the country, provender, fodder, (48) but the Spanish correo has best preserved the original meaning of "post." There is a very large number of variations of these words, (49) and the OFrench conroi, corroi has preserved the original meaning of "apparatus."


1. Herod. VIII. 98. Back
2. Already correctly stated in P. Horn, Grundiss der neupersischen Etymologie, Strassburg 1893, p. 20. Back
3. For the history of the cursus publicus and references to the next paragraph see Paul-Wissowa, Realencycolpaedia, and Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionaire des antiquités, sub cursus publicus. Back
4. "Amoenitate civitatis in paraveredorum et annonarum praebitione proprii cives fatigantur expensis. quapropter ne laedat urbem amoenitas sua aut res praeconii fiat causa dispendii, paraveredorum et annonarum praebitionem secundum evectiones concessas in assem publicum constituimus imputari" (533), Cassiodorus, Variae, XII. 15. Back
5. "Pulveratica quoque iudices funditus amputantes trium tantum etiam dierum praesulibus annonas praeberi secundum vetera constituta decernimus, suis expensis facta tarditate vecturis. legis enim administrantes remedio, non oneri esse voluerunt," ibid. Back
6. "Iudices quoque provinciae vel curiales atque defensores tam de cursu quam de aliis rebus illicita dicuntur possessoribus irrogare dispendia: quod te perquirere et sub ratione legum emendare censemus.....Iudex vero Romanus propter expensas provincialium, quae gravare pauperes suggeruntur, per annum in unumquodque municipium semel accidat: cui non amplius quam triduanae praebeantur annonae, sicut legum cauta tribuerunt, maiores enim nostri discursus iudicum non oneri, sed compendio provincialibus esse voluerunt," v. 14. Back
7. "Atque ideo de veteribus frugibus prudentia tua futuram vincat inopiam, quia tanti fuit anni praeteriti felix ubertas, ut et venturis mensibus provisa sufficiant. reponatur omne quod ad victum quaeritur. facile privatus necessaria reperit, cum se publicus apparatus expleverit," XII. 25, and see in the Index. Back
8. IV. 47, v. 5. Back
9. "Exactorum quoque licentia amplius fertur a provincialibus extorqueri, quam nostro cubiculo constat inferri. quod diligenti examinatione discussum ad hunc vos modum functiones publicas revocare decernimus, quem Alarici atque Eurici temporibus constat illatas. Paraveredorum itaque subvectiones exigere eos, qui habent veredos adscriptos, provincialium querela comperimus. quod nullum penitus sinatis praesumere, quando per turpissimos quaestus et possessor atteritur et commeantium celeritas impeditur" (523-6), ibid., v. 39. Back
10. "Favore tuo factum est, ut evectionum adminicula sumeremus, quibus familiares mei empturi equos curules ad Hispaniam commearent" (399), Symmachi Epistulae, VII. 48 (in MGH., Scrip. antiq.), similarly VII. 105, 106. Back
11. "Sicut ceteri Franci homines cum Comite suo in exercitum missis nostris quos pro rerum oportunitate illas in partes miserimus, aut legatis qui de partibus Hispaniae ad nostras missi fuerint paratas faciant et ad subvectionem eorum veredos donent, ipsi videlicet et illi quorum progenitoribus, temporibus avi nostri Karoli, ad ipsum facere institutum fuit. Si autem hi, qui veredos acceperint, reddere eos neglexerint, et eorum interveniente negligentia perditi seu mortui fuerint, secundum legem Francorum eis, quorum fuerunt, secundum leges Francorum restituantur vel restaurentur" (844), España sagrada, vol. XXIX, p. 452 and Devic et Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc, vol. II, Preuves, p. 244. This is based on the privilege granted to the Spanish fugitives in 815, ibid., p. 98. Back
12. "Finit se in carraria de vereda, quae discurrit de Turio pro ad porta de Condis" (after 916), España sagrada, vol. XXXIV, p. 481; "usque in viride medio" (900), Portugaliae monumenta historica, Dipl. et chart., p. 9; "estrata de uerede et sepe," ibid., "agro que disrupit urueda integrum," ibid., "in via quam dicunt de vereda," ibid., p. 11; "in istrada qui discurrit via de uereda" (921), ibid., p. 15. Back
13. "Nullus dux vel comes nec quilibet superioris aut inferioris ordinis iudex sive missus in eodem loco nec in omnibus ad eum pertinentibus, vel mansiones sibi parare, vel invadere, aut pastum iumentis suis aut suorum diripere aut inde veredos aut veredarios, exigere......audeant," E. de Roziè´re, Recueil général des formules du V(e) au X (e) siècle, Paris 1859, p. 189. So, too, in a French document: "Nullos judex causas audiendas, aut mansionaticos exigendos, vel paratas aut veredos requirendos, ullo unquam tempore ingredi audeat" (835), Tardiff, Monuments historiques, p. 90. Back
14. "Freda vel parafreda exigere," MGH., Formulae, p. 398; "viridos sive paraveridos tantos," ibid., p. 49; "nec freda exigenda sive parafredos" (750), Marini, I papiri diplomatici, p. 103; "viredus sive paraveridus decem" (716), MGH., Dipl., vol. I, p. 76. Back
15. "Ut nullus iudex publicus.....freda nec sthopha nec herebanno recipere nec requirere non praesumat" (664), MGH., Dipl. vol. I, p. 27; "ut nullus iudex ad causas audiendum, nec fideiussores tollendum, nec freda exigendum, nec mansiones faciendum, nec rotaticum infra urbes vel in mercatis extorquendum, nec ullas paratas aut quaslibet redibutiones exactare, causas audiendum, nec frida exigendum, nec mansiones faciendum, nec paratas requirendum, nec nullas redebutiones requirendum....ipsa iudiciaria potestas non praesumat ingredere" (662), ibid., p. 37; "ut nullus iudex ad causas audiendum, nec fideiussores tollendum, nec freda exigendum, nec mansiones faciendum, nec rotaticum infraurbes vel in mercatis extorquendum, nec ullas paratas aut quaslibet redibutiones exactare praesumatur" (683), ibid., p. 50, and, similarly, p. 56; "ut nullus iudex poplicus ad causas audiendum vel fridda exigendum ibidem introitum nec ingressum habire non deberit" (696), ibid., p. 61. Back
16. Hoc ideo dicimus, quia nonnulli priuatorum elicitas suffragio proferunt sanctiones, quibus vectigalia, vel caetera eiusmodi, quae inferri fisco moris est, sibi adserant esse concessa: hoc, si quando militibus nostris, hisve, qui in Palatio nostro degunt praestamus, adprobantibus se sacramentis militaribus adtineri, quod concessimus firmum sit atque robustum," Cod. Theod., XI. 12, 3. Back
17. "Sub omni emunitate hoc ipsum monasterium vel congregatio sua sibimet omnes fredos concessos debeat possidere," MGH., Dipl., vol. I, p. 17; "nisi sub emunitatis nomine omni tempore cum omnes fretas concessas pars ipsius monasterii perenniter deberet possidere" (718), ibid., p. 79, and similarly p. 81; "sub inmunitatis nomeni, cum omnis fredus concessus" (716), Lauer and Samaran, op. cit., p. 24; "cum omnis fridus ad integrum sybymed concessus" (716), ibid. Back
18. "Praesenti admonitione praecipimus, ut omne, quod mutuum pro eadem causa ab extraneis accipere poterant, a tua experientia in publico detur et a rusticis ecclesiae paulatim ut habuerint accipiatur, ne dum in tempore coangustantur, quod eis postmodum sufficere in inferendum poterat, prius compulsi vilius vendant et horreis minime sufficiant" (591), Gregorii I Registri, I. 42. Back
19. "Annis singulis inferendum solidos sex inferendos in alios sex de remissaria auir pagensis inferendo in fisci ditiones reddebant....ut nullus iudex publicus in ipsas curtes ad agendum, nec ad freda exigendum.....intraret......nisi quod ipsam inferendam idem abbas per se ipsum aut per missos suos annis singulis in sacellum publicum reddere debered" (705), MGH., Dipl. I, p. 65. Back
20. "Tributo Saxones, quem reddere consuaeverant, per preceptionem Dagoberti habent indultum. Quinnentas vaccas inferendalis annis singolis a Chlothario seniore censiti reddebant, quod a Dagoberto cassatum est" (632), Fredegarii Scholastici libri IV, in MGH., Scrip. rer. merov., vol. II, p. 158; "centum vaccas inferendales, quae ei de ducatu Cinomannico annis singulis solvebantur .....visus est omni futuro tempore, annuatim concessisse," ibid., p. 415; "Dogobercthus quondam rex....vaccas cento soldaris, quod in inferenda de pago Cinomaneco in fisce dicionebus sperabatur, ad ipsa sancta basileca annis singolis concessissit" (716), MGH., Dipl. I, p. 74. Back
21. "Per has praesentes iubemus praeceptiones ut neque vos neque iuniores vestri aut successores vel missi de palatio nostro discurrentes ipsum Gallum abbatem monasterii sui, amicis, susceptis vel qui per eundem sperare videntur, vel unde legitimo redebet mitio, inquietare, nec inferendas sumere, nec de res eorum in lege minuere audeatis. Sed liceat eis sub sermone nostrae tuitionis vel sub emunitate nostra quietos vivere ac residere," MGH., Dipl. I, p. 12. Back
22. "Quod si illi liberti ipsa cause persequere noluerint, ad suos persecutores nullum fretum pro tale causa non requiratur (erant a mulctae condemnatione securi)," IV. 8. 1; "si postea, cum inter illos directum iudicium fuerit, et iudices fretum et res fuerint redditas (propter repetendos sumtus vel expensas litis)," IV. 15. 2. Back
23. "Si quicumque homo ad duos iudices, ad publicum et ad privatum----hoc est privatus, qui actor ecclesiarum est---, si ille homo de una facultatem ad ambos illos iudices causa habere voluerit, ut ad unum de illos iudices iunior sit et fretum conponat, et ad illum alterum iudicem actum querit: ille homo, qui istum fecerit, ipsam rem vel actum, quem querit, non accipiat et insuper quintam partem facultatis sue de illas res, qui sub illum iudicem habet, ad illam civitatem det, in cuius finibus res, de quo agitur, fuerit constituta," II. 16. 2; "nullus iudex alienas res nec per forcia nec per nullo malo ingenio, absente illo, cuius res sunt, nullus homo eas invadere non presumat, nisi si eas si per iudicium potuerit vindicare, salvum iudices fretum," IV. 19. 1. Back
24. "Judices publicos, qui fescales causas iudicant vel exigunt," XII. 2. 3. Back
25. "Clericus si de criminalem causam ante publicum iudicem accusatus fuerit, sine omnem dilationem ipsam causam respondeat," XVIII. 11. Back
26. "Formulae rectoris provinciae. Omnino provide decrevit antiquitas iudices ad provinciam mitti, ne possit ad nos veniendo mediocritas ingravari. Quis enim latronum ferret audaciam, si longe positam cognoscerent disciplinam? absolute poterat vis permissa grassari, si conquerens tardius crederetur audiri, sed quanto melius in ipsis cunabilis adhuc mollia reprimere quam indurata crimina vindicare! in compendium mittimus mala, si praesentia faciamus esse iudicia. quis enim audeat peccare, cum supra cervices suas districtionem cognoverit imminere? Et ideo te illi provinciae rectorem per illam indictionem nostra mittit electio....tibi fiscalium tributorum credita monstratur exactio," Cassiodorus, Variae, VI. 21. Back
27. Cod. Theod. XV. 1 (De operibus publicis), passim. Back
28. "Unusquisque iudex in his locis sedem constituat, in quibus oportet omnibus presto esse rectorem, non deuerticula deliciosa sectetur. Addimus sane, vt quisque provinciae praesidentem propria possessione susceperit, ager, quem diuersorium habuerit praedictus in transitu, fisci viribus vindicetur: ita enim iudices mansiones instruere, et instaurare nitentur," I. 7. 4. Back
29. "Det operam iudex vt praetorium suum ipse componat. Caeterum comiti neque rectori prouinciae plus aliquid praestabitur, quam nos concessimus in annonis, seu cellariis," I. 10. 3. Back
30. "Ut nulles judex publicus.......ingredi praesumat, nec freda aut tributa vel paratas aut veredos seu mansiones accipere......audeat" (844), Devic et Vaissete, op. cit., Vol. II, Preuves, col. 234; but the document is, probably, spurious, as the other two documents where freda and parafredi occur (ibid., cols. 364 and 366) certainly are. Back
31. "Nec nullus judex fiscalis de quacumque libet causa freta non exigat, priusquam facinus conponatur......Fretum autem non illi iudici tribuat cui culpa commisit, sed illi, qui solucionem recipit, terciam partem coram testibus fisco tribuat, ut pax stabilis permaneat," LXXXIX. Back
32. "Et quisquis de res ecclesiae furtivis probatus fuerit, ad partem fisci pro fredo praebeat fideiussorem, et donet wadium de 40 solidis, et tantum solvat, quantum iudex iusserit, et quantum durius solverit, tantum firmior erit pax ecclesiae," I. 1. 6. Back
33. "Et donet wadium comiti illo de fredo," 1. 2. 14. Back
34. "Et pro fredo in publico solvat solidos 40, ut exinde sit reverentia sacerdotum, et honor ecclesiasticus non condamnetur neque praesumptio crescat in plebe," I. 1. 9; "si autem vim abstraxerit et iniuriam ecclesiae fecerit, conponat 36 solidos ad ecclesiam et fredo (frido) solvat in fisco 40 solidos, quare contra legem fecit et ecclesiae honorem non inpendit et Dei reverentiam non habuit, ut et alii cognuscant, quod sit timor Dei in christianis, et honorem ecclesiis inpendat," Leges Alamannorum, III. 3. Back
35. "Quoties de paruis criminibus, id est, vnius serui fuga, aut sublati iumenti, aut modicae terrae, seu domus inuasae, vel certi furti, id est, detenti aut peruenti, sub criminis nomine actio fortasse processerit, ad mediocres iudices qui publicam disciplinam obseruant, id est, aut defensores aut assertores pacis, vindictam eius rei decernimus pertinere. Ad rectorem vero prouinciae illud negotium criminale perueniat, vbi de personarum inscriptione agitur, vel maior est, quae non nisi ab ordinario iudice, recitata legis sententia debeat terminari," Interpretatio to Cod. Theod. II. 1. 8. Back
36. "Omnium negotiorum causas ita iudices habeant deputatas, ut et criminalia et cetera negotia terminandi sit illis concessa licentia. Pacis vero adsertores non alias dirimant causas, nisi quas illas regia deputaverit ordinandi potestas. Pacis enim adsertor est, qui sola faciende pacis intentione regali sola distinatur autoritate," Lex Visig., II. 1. 15. Back
37. "Conpulsores vel executores decreto perstringimus, ut non pro sua conmoda exigant volumtate, sed ab eis, quos propria evectione conpulerint, subvectum tantum super eum accipiant caballorum. Nec illi prius conmoda compulsionis exigant, quam suas in iudicio litigantes exercent actiones: conmoda quoque iuxta huius consulti seriem accepturi, id est, ut in milibus quinquaginta accipiant per caballo uno solido uno, ea videlicet ratione, ut in minoribus causis duo tantum, in maioribus vero quatuor caballi sufficiant, et si quis plures caballos ultra hunc numerum ducere voluerit, absque ullo deductorum damno suo tantantum reputabit ornatu," K. Zeumer, Ueber zwei neuentdeckte westgothische Gesetze, in Neues Archiv, vol. XXIII, p. 78 f. Back
38. "Saiones, cum pro causis alienis vadunt, si minor causa est et persona, duos caballus tantum ab eo, cuius causa est, accipiat fatigandos; si vero maior persona fuerit et causa, non amplius quam sex caballos et pro itinere et pro dignitate debebit accipere," II. 1. 26. Back
39. "Tributa quidem nobis annua devotione persolvitis: sed nos maiore vicissitudine decoras vobis reddimus dignitates, ut vos ab incursantium pravitate defendant qui nostris iussionibus obsecundant.....quaerat iudex inter vos causas et non inveniat.....improbis iudicem, testem bonis moribus destinamus......cui vos convenit prudenter oboedire, quia utrumque laudabile est, ut bonus populus iudicem benignum faciat et mansuetus iudex gravissimum populum aequabili ratione componat," Cassiodorus, Variae, VI., 24; "exeunt a nobis dignitates relucentes quasi a sole radii, ut in orbis nostri parti resplendeat custodita iustitia," ibid., VI. 2. 3, et passim. Back
40. Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquités, sub cursus publicus, p. 1657. Back
41. M. Rostowzew, Angariae, in Klio, vol. VI, p. 249 ff.; F. Preisigke, Die ptolemäische Staatspost, ibid., vol. VII, p. 241 ff. Back
42. "Mansio parata," a distinct reference to the well-provided post-station, is already used by Ambrose. Back
43. "Vereda reita, reida, reide, reit," Steinmeyer and Sievers, Althochdeutsche Glossen, vol. IV, p. 107, also vol. I, p. 488. Back
44. "Et vasculis tam panis quam vini et de omnibus aliis arezamentis et rebus," Acta Sanctorum, October XII, p. 75. Back
45. "Quod animalia militum et arnes sui corporis nec apparamenta domus non pignorentur" (1283), Cortes do los antigüos reinos de Aragon y de Valencia, Madrid 1896, vol. I, p. 151; "De cariando hernesio regis ad eum. Mandatum est vicecomitibus Lond' quod habere faciant Willelmo Hordel clerico unam bonam carectam ad denarios ipsius regis, ad herenesium regis ad eum cariandum" (1228), Close Rolls, Henry III, vol. I, 75; "quod nemini civi Civitatis Catinae cuiuscumque conditionis, et gradus existat, sit licitum ultra quantitatem unciarum auri trigintaquinque in arnesio promittere neque dare, quod si secus fecerit, et pervenerit in casu restitutionis dotis, quod maritus ipsum arnesium ultra dictam quantitatem lucrifaciat ipso facto, nulla servata actione ei cui competere possit ratione restitutionis arnesii supradicti, cui consuetudini renuntiari non possit" (1345), Constitutiones Regni Siciliae, p. 117. Back
46. For this and similar meanings see Ducange, sub arnense, arnescum, arnese, arnesium, arnexium, arneysium, arnitus, harnascha, harnasium, harnesiatus. Back
47. "Ut nec nostro, nec aliorum tempore quandam convivia, quae vulgo Coreede, vel giste vocantur, in villis praenominatis exigere, vel quaerere liceat" (1157), in Ducange sub conredium; "Imperatori servitium a vassallis deberi pro corredo Imperiali, ut videlicet quando Imperator transierit per illum locum, contribuat in sumptibus ejus," ibid. Back
48. Ducange records under conredium the following: conredum, corrodium, conreus, correda, conragium, conregium, conreium, correium, coureium, corrogium. Back
49. "Ut super servientes iam fatae ecclesiae mansionaticos vel foderum nullus audeat prendere aut exactare ullo umquam tempore, excepto si evenerit, quod nos ipsi aut dilectus filius noter Pippinus vel regale presidium propter impedimenta inimicorum partibus Foroiulensibus aut in fine Tarvisiani advenerint" (792), MGH., Die Urkunden der Karolinger, vol. I, p. 234. For further quotations of foderum, fodrum in Italy see J. Ficker, Urkunden zur Reichs- und Rechtsgeschicte Italiens, Innsbruck, 1874, vol. IV, in the Index, E. Mayer, Italienische Verfassungsgeschichte von der Gothenzeit bis zur Zunftherrschaft, Leipzig 1909, in the Index, and G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, 2nd ed., vol. IV, p. 15 ff. Back

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