The Northern Way

Commentary To the Germanic Laws and Medieval Documents

(Page 3)

The expression terre vaine et vague, which becomes more and more popular, contains a tautology. In Normandy terra vacua was originally the expression for terre vaine, for we are distinctly told in the Summa de legibus that in the terra vacua cattle cold pasture only from September until March, that is, on the stubble or rowen. (88) Hence terre vaine refers to the late pastures only, while terre vuide is any abandoned, rough pasture. But in time the latter word loses its distinctive meaning, while vaine pâturage becomes the common expression for "pasture."

In the Codex Theodosianus the term terrae vacantes, vagantes signifies abandoned, uncultivated land, (89) in Italy vacuus and vacans referred to neglected land in private possession, (90) and as in France the terre vuide was opposed to terre pleine, so here was employed the combination vacuum et plenum. (91) In the Theodosian Code we have the expression vacuus et inanis for the complete abandonment of property, which then is confiscated by the curia, (92) and this term is used in hundreds of documents in the Middle Ages. (93) In place of the older vacuus there soon spreads in Italy forms derived from Fr. vuid, vuit, even more completely than did the gain words. Philologists, who construct history on abstract laws, have derived such words from a Lat. vocitus for vacatus. But there is not a shadow of a trace of such a word anywhere. While we do have vocitus for vocatus, a derivation from vacatus is absurd. In Italy we find only the words derived from vacuus and vacans, and also vacivus. (94) The philologists base their assumption of such a derivation on the Logudorian form bogidu in Sardinia, which, they say, is derived from vocitus. But fortunately we here possess early dialectic documents in the Condaghe di San Pietro di Silki, from the fourteenth century, in which some documents run back to the eleventh century. Here vacans occurs several times, but of vocitus and bogidu there is not a trace. (95) Hence vocitus is an impossibility as a basis for void, vuit. It is true that vuit took the place of the old vacuum, since there is little difference between a pecia de vites and a vacuum. Vuit was popular in France in the eighth century, but did not assume the distinct meaning of "empty, abandoned" until later, possibly not before the tenth century.

The German Weide is derived from widis, even as Ohmd and Grummet are derived from Fr. gain. Weide appears only late in OHG., is not recorded in Gothic, and has entered the northern languages only from the German. The oldest quotation for Weide is in the Hrabanian glosses of the ninth century. But if one turns to the respective passage, (96) one finds there "pascua ostarun pascua uueide," where the first pascua is a mistake for pascha, while eid in uueide is written over an old erasure. It can be shown that this gloss was written by a later hand, for in the alphabetic Bible glossary we find "pastum uuinne." (97) Obviously, then, inn was erased, to make place for eid. Consequently the Hrabanian gloss cannot be used for the determination of the age of this word. The usual word for pasture is mesti. (98) But uuinne and mesti are themselves borrowed words. Uuinne is related to gain, as gewinnen is related to gagner, and mesti is Lat. mixta, which has also produced Span. mesta "pasture," which since the thirteenth century has played an important part in Spanish economic history. OHG. mast, (99) AS. maeste (100) is "common forest," where the pigs are fattened, wherefore it is translated by pasnagium. In the Spanish documents ambae mixtae, maestae, or mestae means everything which is used in common by adjoining neighbors, whether pasture or fishing. Before the thirteenth century most of the recorded cases refer exclusively to fishing rights, (101) but that is mere accident, for from the thirteenth century on mestae refers to the pasture.

OHG. weide is not certain before the tenth century, but it must have existed much earlier, because widis campis is recorded on German soil in the eighth century. As the pasture was chiefly used for hunting, we have AS. vaeð "hunting, roaming about, waves."

We turn once more to the Atlas linguistique de la France (N° 1384), in order to study the distribution of the vuid group on French soil. If we draw the same line as in regain, we have in the whole northwest the pure vide group, which here, as in regain, chiefly depends on literary influence. In the northeast, in Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Nord, Arden, we meet with wid, which in Belgium leans strongly towards vud, vut. From here a void, voed group takes a sharp southerly direction, while in Switzerland vud, voed, wid, weid meet side by side. Through the Provence run vud, vuid, weid forms, as buit, bueid, etc., here and there interrupted by literary vide. It is clear that the original vuid has developed in the direction of weid and vud. Considering the popular vut forms in Switzerland and the vit, voet, vueit in Raeto-Roman, it is not strange that Italian has vuoto, which is certainly of French late origin, for it has only the meaning "empty."

The fate of vitatum on the Spanish peninsula is especially instructive, because the many aberrations of the word have spread with the economic development of the pasture throughout the rest of Europe. According to Visigothic law the fields bordering the road had to be surrounded by a fence or ditch, (102) otherwise the traveler along the road could not be kept from pasturing his cattle in the open fields. (103) The apertorum camporum pascua mentioned in this law is the same as the French vaine pâture, that is, stubble fields, while vacantium camporum pascua corresponds to the terre vuide. This is made absolutely certain from the corresponding Langobard law, where stupla and pascua are distinguished. (104) The identity of the two laws has long been observed, and it has been suggested that the Langobards have borrowed theirs from the Visigothic Code. One will look in vain in the Roman laws for its prototype, but it is evident that we are dealing with the economic institution of the Roman arbustum vitatum, which had to be taken care of and fenced in, to escape the fate of the vacant fields. A terra vitata could be defended, in order that it might remain in private possession, as regards pasturing, while wasteland and fallow fields were common pasture and could even be confiscated by the government. The semasiological change from terra vitata to terra vetata was natural and imperative, hence we not only find in the Visigothic law "pascua non vetentur," but in Aragon, Navarre and Gascony vetatum was the usual word for the arbustum vitatum of the Italians. (105) The vedado in Navarre has already been mentioned in connection with arbustum. In the sixth book of the Fuero general de Navarra we have specific mention of the rights exercised by neighboring villages in such a pasture. We get here a clear idea why vitatum was popularly changed to vetatum, for in such an enclosure the cattle and horses could pasture the whole year round, while other animals were admitted only from September or November until March. (106)

In Spain the oldest form recorded in the document is not vetatum but divisa. (107) That we are having here an enclosed pasture is proved by a document of the year 869, where a monastery is given right to gather fuel in a divisio and share pasture with a neighboring town. (108) This divisa has not survived, except in the stereotyped expression hereditates et divisae, in order to express complete possession of an estate, including the pasturage. In the province of Burgos the divisae are mentioned as lying in the outskirts, no longer as common property, but in private possession, the difference between hereditates and divisae being the same as between alodial land and such as has been acquired by presura. (109)

The obligation of the Langobard to the Visigothic laws has already been observed by historians. It can also be shown that the Langobard documents of certain regions stand in some relation to the Visigothic documents. This is, no doubt, the case with those that employ divisa in a vague sense of "pasture." The earliest recorded instance is in a Carolingian document of the year 783, where we have the term "pascuis divisis et indivisi." (110) To the sensible "pascuis devisis" has been added the impossible "indevisi," for either divisa is not a divided pasture, or, if it is, an undivided pasture cannot be given away. This stereotyped expression divisa et indivisa is given in a number of documents at Amiata and Lucca, where the meaning cannot be ascertained, because it is never enlarged upon. (111) But we can show from a large number of Milan documents that the expression there occurs in company with other exceptional terms for Italy, which are common in Spanish documents. In a document of the year 840, with a prolific and useless pertinence, divisum et indivisum follows the term interconciliaricis. (112) Two years later interconciliaricis is changed to inter concilium. (113) This word goes through the most extravagant changes, through inconcilibus, concelibus, concelibas, incelibas, conclivis, concilibas, celibas, coelibas. (114) It is evident that this strange word had the meaning of "pasture," but it was foreign to Italy, and in the middle of the eleventh century it disappears entirely. In Roman times concilium was the council held by the conciliabulum, (115) which itself was an administrative division after the forum, "quae colonia hac lege deducta a quodve municipium praefectura, forum, conciliabulum constitutum est." Festus explains conciliabulum "locum ubi concilium convenitur." Isidor knows it as "pagi sunt loca apta aedificiis inter agros habitantibus, haec est conciliabula dicta a conventu secietate multorum in unum." (116) In Italy no trace of conciliabulum is left, but in Spain concilium survived in the sense of "community," (117) hence the strange group of the Milan words was in some way transplanted from Spain. This seems to be proved by the use of the words vicinalis, divisa and montes, which are found with this concilium in the Milan documents, which are all distinctive Spanish terms, while montes, considering the fact that there are no mountains in Milanese territory, has developed out of the Spanish divisa in monte "forest pasture." We have already seen that the divisa in monte, like the vedado in Navarre, forms in Burgos the subject of constant discussions between adjoining villages and towns, hence the interconcilium of the year 842 can be nothing but the interconfinium, which Joannes de Janua (118) glosses with "terminus vel locus inter duos fines existens." Without a comparison of the Milan with the Spanish documents the existence of concilium is unique in Italy, and inexplicable. (119)

If vetatum of the Spanish documents is a transformation of vitatum, the still older divisa can only be some transformation of (pezia) de vitis, as recorded in the oldest Langobard documents. The incomprehensible vitatum changed into the comprehensible vetatum "forbidden" and divisa "separated, set aside." But there were many other corruptions of the original word. In Catalonia they spoke of a devesa, (120) while in Spain they at an early time passed over to defesa, which was understood and written as defensa "protected." In a document of the year 804 both divisa and defesa occur, and it is obvious that divisa refers to the termini mentioned before. (121) I have my doubts about the genuineness of this document, at least of the spelling defesa, since the document exists only in late copies and defesa is otherwise not recorded before the tenth century. (122) In the Provence this word does not appear before the eleventh century. Here we find the forms deves, devesum, devensum, defensum, defensorium. (123) In the Provençal language are recorded deves, defes, deveza, and the latter form is also found in Portuguese, while the Spanish has dehesa.

We have already seen from the Milanese documents that divisa stood by the side of inter concilium, that is, that it lay in the common land of adjoining villages. This is clearly shown in the English laws, where divisa is the common land (124) in which neighbors' troubles are settled, (125) wherefore it also means "first instance."(126) In Ine's law the Anglo-Saxon text has gafolland for divisa, that is, "land subject to a tax," such as is the case with pasture land, while one text slavishly translates it by gedálland. (127) This latter term occurs also in two tenth century documents, and in one of these it is distinctly mentioned as being common pasture, meadow and field. (128) In France divisa, devesa still occur in the twelfth century, (129) but most of the derivatives, such as defay, defois, are from defesa and defensa. (130)

From the above discussion it is evident that the Latin agricultural term arbustum vitatum, to express the enclosed vineyard which could be turned into a pasture only after the crops were in, or when the vines were so high that they could not be reached by the cattle, became in Spain the expression for any enclosed pasture, whether there were any vines in it or not. From Spain the idea of enclosures spread to France and England, where they played such an important part in the thirteenth century.

Endnotes


88. "Terre vero vacue, que a medio marcio usque ad festum Sancte Crucis in septembri defenduntur, alio vero tempore sunt communes, nisi clause fuerint vel ex antiquitate defense, ut haie et hujusmodi," E. J. Tardif, Coutumiers de Normandie, Rouen, Paris 1896, vol. II, p. 30. Back
89. VII. 20. 3 and 8. Back
90. "Terra vacuum ividem qui vinea fuit" (939), Mon. reg neap., vol. I, p. 119; "terra bacua ubi prius domum fuit" (963), ibid., vol. II, p. 109; "terra uacante in circuitu eius ubi aptum fuerit vineas cum arboribus pomorum" (946), Archivio della r. Società Romana di Storia Patria, vol. XII, p. 74. Back
91. "Assignastis nobis montem vestrum vacuum et plenum" (10. cent.), Camera, Memorie...di Amalfi, vol. I, p. 164. Back
92. "Vacuas vero et inanes sine naturali successione fortunas sibi Curia vindicabit," XII. 1. 123. Back
93. "Si quis de novis quod ab se substragere voluerit, vel proprio defendere, vacuus et enanis exinde exeat" (713), Brunetti, op. cit., vol. I, p. 423, and again, vol. II, pp. 350, 372, 382, 402. Back
94. "Terra vaciba" (1022), G. B. Nitto de Rossi, Codice diplomatico barese, vol. I, p. 19 (940), Codex cavensis, vol. I, p. 215, and very often. Back
95. "Sa parte sua dessa uinia de funtana, cun pumu e bacante cantu ui aueat," G. Bonazzi, Il Condaghe di San Pietro di Silki, testo logudorese inedito dei secoli XI-XIII, Sassari-Cagliari 1900, p. 78 (N°325) and again Nos 40, 248, 347. Back
96. Steinmeyer and Sievers, Althochdeutsche Glossen, vol. I, p. 255. Back
97. Steinmeyer and Sievers, Althochdeutsche Glossen, vol. I, p. 286. Back
98. Ibid., vol. IV, p. 84. Back
99. "Ad Fregistatt sortes duas et Walt-masta ad porcos saginandum" (826), "quidam fidelis .....dedit bannum villae cum omni jure ex integro et justitia, quae vulgo dicitur mast" (999). However, both documents are spurious. Back
100. "Gif non on his maestene unaliefed swin gemete, si quis obuiet porco sine licentia in pasnagio suo" (688-95?), Liebermann, Gesetze der Angelsachsen, p. 110 f.; "donne he his heorde to maestene drife, quando gregem suam minabit in pastinagium" (1025-60), ibid., p. 447. Back
101. "Et per illa Brana de Ordial, et per illas nestas de Freznedo, et per conforquellos, et inde ad illo rio de Rivilla" (780), España sagrada, vol. XXXVII, p. 306; "a meridie partibus suo porto integro, et suas piscarias, et suos rannales, et suos andamios, et saltus, usque in ambas mixtas, ad illo Trotino.....duas eremitas, Sancto Cosme et Damiano, que iacent contra parte de Mineo sub illa vereda, quae descendit ad ambas mixtas....cum omnes suas cuintiones, et deganias cunctas....quas fuisse de praesura antiqua scripturas veteres" (997), A. de Yepes, Coronica general de la Orden de San Benito, vol. V, fol. 438 b.; "per penna aurata et per illos carriles....usque ad illo cauto.....inde per medium albeum usque ad ambas mixtas exceptas illas piscarias de Fiscaces, ibi vero in ambas mixtas restauramus, sicut in nostris testamentis habetur, et inde in ambas mixtas per medias albas usque ad Castellano" (1139), ibid., fol. 439; "descendit per ambas maestas ad Fontem Panal" (960), ibid., fol. 448; "de inter ambas mestas ubi cadit Pisorica in Dorio, de inde ad Egica donec perveniatur a la Gascagosa.....inde al Fontanar, de inde a las mestas ubi cadit Adagga in Dorio; et concedo ut nullus audeat piscare, videlicet ad Agga in Dorio, usque ad illas mestas ubi cadit Pisorica in Dorio" (1135), M. Férotin, Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Silos, p. 67. Back
102. Lex. Visig., VIII. 4. 25 and 26. Back
103. "De apertorum et vacantium camporum pascuis. Ne iter agentibus pascua non conclusa vetentur," ibid., 27. Back
104. "Nulli sit licentia iterantibus erba negare, excepto prata intacto tempore suo, aut messem. Post fenum autem aut fruges collectas tantum vindicit couis terra est, quantum cum clausura sua potest defendere. Nam si cavallus iter facientibus de stupla aut de ipsa pascua, ubi alia peculia pascent, movere presumpserit, in octogild ipsus cavallus conponat, pro eo quod ipsos de arvo campo, quod est fonsaccri, movere presumpserit," Ed. Roth. 358. Back
105. To the many quotations given in Ducange (sub bedatum and vetatum) the following few may be added: "Totam terram cultam et incultam et nemus et bedad" (1159), L'abbé Clergeac, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Gimont, Paris, Auch 1905, pp. 150, 151; "boscum qui appellatur bedad" (1158), ibid., p. 147. Back
106. "La defesa (de cavayllos) deve ser vedado de la sancta Maria Candelor entroa la sant Johan ata que gayllos canten: et de que gayllos cantaren al dia de sant Johan entroa sancta Maria Candelor, puede paszer todo ganado," Fuero general de Navarra, p. 125; "vedado de bueyes deve ser del primer dia de sancta Maria Candelor entroa la sanct Martin ata que gayllos canten; et de que gayllos cantaren al dia de sanct Martin entroal dia de sancta Maria Candelor, puede paszer todo ganado," ibid., p. 124. Back
107. "Cum suas hereditates et divisa in monte" (762), Berganza, Antigüedades de España, vol. II, . 370. Back
108. "Ego Comite Didaco dono ad Sancti Felicis divisiones in montes, et fontes, id est de Valde Avuelo quantum potest portare cotidie cum vno carro....Et pro ad illo ganato divisione pari pasce cum illa Civitate Aukense," ibid., p. 371. Back
109. "Concedo etiam ut ubicumque habueritis divisas in omni Aucensi Episcopatu" (1068), España sagrada, vol. XXVI, p. 453; "trado ibi divisas guas in circuitu possideo. In Caraveio divisam quam ex parte matris heredito: In Mazzoferario divisam quam ex parte matris habeo. Et in Quintana Levaniaga divisa quam ex parte matris heredito ab omni integritate. Et in Villamajore tres divisas, una de meo patre Gustio Didaz, altero de meo germano Didaco Gustioz: terrtia de mea tia Domna Onneca. Has divisas Tibi Munioni Episcopo perpetuo jure concedo, ut serviant in Ecclesia S. Mariae semper Virginis cum suis adjacentiis, cum terris et vineis, cum pratis et montibus, cum ingressu et regressu ab omni integritate concedo" (1071), ibid., p. 455; "villas eremas et populatas, decanias, et omnes alias divisas seu etiam hereditates.....totum concedo Burgensi sedi perpetuo serviturum" (1076), ibid., p. 459; "cum suas domos et divissas" (1056), M. Férotin, Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Silos, p. 12; "divisero e heredero en la villa" (1239), ibid., p. 175. Back
110. "Undecumque ad me devolutum est tam casis vincis terris silvis pratis pascuis devisis et indevisi," Brunetti, op. cit., vol. II, p. 254. Back
111. "Cultum et incultum, deviso vel indeviso" (821), Archivio della r. Società romana, vol. XVI, p. 299. Back
112. "Ipsa predictis rebus cum casis in ipsas quinque locas vel alias tectoras cum curtis, ortis, areis, clausuris, campis, pratis, pascuis, silvis, salectis, sadiciis, castandedis, cerredis, roboretis, hamenecolariis, frontzariis, pascuis, usum aque, interconciliaricis, divisum et indivisum, omnia in omnibus," Cod. Langob., col. 240. Back
113. "Et omnes relique singolas terretorium seo de inter concilium, eo no mine divisum et indivisum," ibid., col. 256. Back
114. "Vineis, silvis, vicanalibus, inconcilibis locis, omnia et omnibus" (847), ibid., col. 273; "concelibus locis, divisas et indivisas, coltum et incoltum, tam in monte quamque etiam in planis" (851), ibid., col. 292; "vicanalibus, concelibas locas" (856), ibid., col. 329 and (911) col. 653; "montibus, alpibus seo incelibas logas" (864), ibid., col. 385; "conclivis locis divisis, ripis, rupinis" (914), ibid., col. 784; "coerit ei da una parte via, da alia Sancti Abundi, da tercia concelibis, da quarta si qui sunt alii finantes" (992), ibid., col. 1521; "usque seu inter concillibas locas" (984), ibid., col. 1441; "coltis, et incoltis, divisis, et indivisis, usibus aquarum, aquarumque ductibus, et una cum finibus seu celibas locas" (1036), G. Giulini, Memorie spettanti alla storia....di Milano ne' secoli bassi, Milano 1857, vol. VII, p. 58; "pascuis, gerbis, divisis et indivisis, tam in montibus, quam in planitiis, usibus aquarum, aquarumque ductibus seu piscationibus, atque in coelibas locas" (1042), ibid., p. 59; "divisis, et indivisis, una cum finibus, terminibus, accesionibus, et usibus aquarumque ductibus.....seu concelibas locas" (1051), ibid., p. 64. Back
115. Thesaurus linguae latinae, sub concilium technice 2. Back
116. Ibid., sub conciliabulum. Back
117. Ducange, sub concilium 3. Back
118. Ducange. Back
119. P.S. Leicht, Studi sulla proprietà fondiaria nel medio evo, Verona-Padova 1903, p. 37 ff. Back
120. J. Balari y Jovany, Origenes historicas de Cataluña, Barcelona 1899. Back
121. "Tribuo etiam in in loco qui vocatur Potancar ecclesias......cum suis hereditatibus et terminis de penna usque ad flumen de Orone, cum molendinis et ortis et pratis et cum exitibus et regressibus adque cum omnibus sibi pertinentibus......Precipio quoque ut abeatis plenariam libertatem ad incidenda ligna in montibus meis ad construendas ecclesias, siue ad edificandas domos, aut cremandum, uel ad quodcumque necesse fuerit in defesis, in pascuis, in fontibus, in riuis, in exitu et regressu, absque ullo montadgo adque portatico. Adicio autem huic prefate uille seu monasteria uel ecclesias siue diuisas que suprascripte sunt, uel que tu aut successores tui adquirere potueritis," Chartes de l'église de Valpuesta, in Revue hispanique, vol. VII, p. 291 f. Back
122. "Pratis, pascuis, padulibus, defessas lignarum, vel pascentes omni ganato per suis terminis" (963), Berganza, Antigüedades de España, vol. II, p. 400; "illa defessa, vel illo monte, dabo, et confirmo ab omni integritate. Ego Ferdinando Gundisalviz, sic pono foro super ipsa defessa. Si aliquis homo venerit in illo monte sine iussione Abbati pascere, aut ligna taliare, sic pono tali foro, vel cauto per vno bobe prendar vno carnero.....nullus domo auseus non sedeat per ibi intrare in illo monte, nisi solus, qui iussionem Abbatum de regula de Sancti Iuliani, et illos montes per ligna taggare, aut pascere, aut matera ad laborandum, aut derompere illos montes" (964), ibid., p. 402; "pratis, padules, pascuis, defessis" (968), ibid., p. 403; "cum defessas, et cum montes" (968), ibid., p. 404; "qui scinderit ligna in ipsa defessa" (972), ibid., p. 408; "molinis, defessis, pratis, pascuis" (1056), ibid., p. 430; "pratis et defesis, pascuis et paludibus" (979), Férotin, op. cit., p. 6; "serra cum sua defesa lignea" (1041), ibid., p. 10; "pratos et defesas vel pomiferis" (1056), ibid., p. 12; "ortis et pomiferis, cum pratis et defessis" (1073), ibid., pp. 19, 21; "ponte atque pelago ad piscandum et saltu defensso" (1125), ibid., p. 54. Back
123. "Devesum in aqua" (1033) M. Guérard, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint Victor de Marseille, Paris 1857, vol. I, p. 129; "de devensu, de pisces, de arboribus" (1060), ibid., p. 404; "vineas male invasas et defensorium" (1090), ibid., p. 600; "accessis sive exivis, defensis" (1044), ibid., p. 49 et passim; "prata defensa et plantata" (1027), J. A. Brutails, Etude sur la condition des populations rurales du Roussillon au Moyen Age, Paris 1891, p. 254. Back
124. "Si murdrum in campis patentibus et passim accessilibus inveniatur, a toto hundreto communiter, non solum ab eo, cuius terra est, suppleatur; si in diuisis accidat, utrimque pertranseat; si in aula regia sit, inde componat cui terra adiacebit," Hen. 91. 4; "si ceorli habeant herbagium in communi uel aliam compascualem (uel divisionis, divisam) terram claudendam," Ine 42. Back
125. "Si inter compares uicinos utrinque sint querele, conueniant ad diuisas terrarum suarum," Hen. 57; " in diuisis uel [m] erchimotis," Hen. 57. 8; "inter compares in curiis uel diuisis uel locis suis," Hen. 34. 1a; "curiis uel diuisis parium." Hen. 9. 4. Back
126. "Cil ki prendra larrun nez siwte e senz cri, que cil enlest, a ki il avera le damage fait, e il vienge apres, si est resun, qu'il duinse X sol. le hengwite, e si face la justice a la primere devise (et ad primam divisam faciet de eo justitiam)," Leis Willelme 4, 4. 1. Back
127. "Gif ceorlas gaerstun haebben gemaenne oððe oþer gedálland to tynanne." Back
128. "Das nigon hida licggeað on gemang oðran gedállande feldlaes gemáne and maéda gemáne and yrðlande gemaéne" (961), J. M. Kemble, Codex diplomaticus aevi saxonici, Londini 1848, vol. VI, p. 39; "healf hid gedaéllandes" (966), ibid., vol. III, p. 6. Back
129. "Inde ascendit per lo deves sicut aqua pendet" (1169), C. U. F. Chevalier, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-André le-Bas de Nienne, Lyon 1869, p. 303; "in clauso, et in prato, et in devisio," C. U. Chevalier, Chartularium Ecclesiae Petri de Burgo Valentiae 1869, p. 4. Back
130. See Ducange, sub defensa 3. Back


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