The Northern Way

Commentary To the Germanic Laws and Medieval Documents

Chapter III


In the Notitia dignitatum there is a reference to exculcatores, excultatores, exculeatores Brittaniciani, that is, to British scouts. Ammianus Marcellinus uses the word proculcatores, and Vegetius refers to this word as being new. (1) The form exculcator is obviously popular etymology, as though it were from exculcare "to press out." (2) In the sixth century sculca was used by Gregory the Great, (3) and in Byzantium skoulka, skoulta "scout" skoulkeuein "to do scout duty" were freely employed. But the Greeks also used the shorter form koulka, which also appears in LLatin, as we shall soon see. The form exculeatores of the Notitia dignitatum must have arisen from a shorter form culeatores, and this is actually found in Welsh and Cornish, that is, in British, until the present day. We have Cornish golyas, gollyaz, golzyas, colyas, gologhas "to watch, keep awake," guillua " a watch, vigilia," Welsh gwyl, gwel "a sight, a show, holiday, festival," that is, "vigilia" in the Christian sense, gwyliad "a vision, watching," gwyliadur "a sentinel," gwyliaw "to watch, be vigilant, look out." The Irish has only feil "festival, holdiay," but all of these words are directly derived from Lat. vigilia, and Welsh gwyliadur at once explains Lat. (ex)culcator, which the Notitia dignitatum distinctly associates with the Britons.

This culcare has an interesting history on Frankish territory. The Salic law has a curious phrase "solem collocare," which has given rise to a lot of extravagant ideas about "primitive" Germanic law. A man was not allowed to regain stolen property as his own unless he had legally claimed it by the act known as "solem collocare." (4) A master refusing to punish his guilty slave at the request of a third party, that party could not take the master to court except by the act of "solem collocare" for the period of three times seven days. (5) Any refusal to pay a debt, to appear in court brings about the summons to court by a preceding "solem collocare." (6) One law has solsatire (7) instead of solem collocare, and that this is not merely a misprint or mistake is proved by a reading collegato sol sista and by the stereotyped phrase "legibus custodire et solsadire" of the Merovingian documents (8) and of the Formulae. (9) Twice we have solatium collectum for "the posse that lies in distress," (10) and in the Ribuarian law alsaccia is used for "distress." (11)

That the ceremony of sitting from morning to sunset for a series of days before proceeding with the case in court was a real act is proved not only be specific statements, (12) but especially by the enormously exaggerated developments of this Frankish law among the Irish in their law of distress as laid down in the Brehon Laws. In either case we have nothing but a development of the corresponding Roman laws of the year 382, according to which the severer cases were not to be proceeded against at once, but the defendants were to be watched by a guard for the period of thirty days. (13) The very phrase which contains this injunction, "reos sane accipiat vinciatque custodia, et excubiis sollertibus vigilanter obseruet," or "sollicitis obseruet excubiis," (14) became the stereotyped sentence from which has developed our legend of watching until the sun went down. That this phrase is significant is proved by its occurrence in Gregory, "certe sculcas quos mittitis, sollicite requirant, ne dolens factum ad nos recurrat," "carefully employ the watches which you send, lest the crime should fall back upon us." Obviously the sulsadina of the Salic law, which was necessary before the judge could proceed with the case, contained the words to the effect that the watches had carefully been employed for the period of three days, that is, three times seven days, since the distress was repeated each week. The sulsadina, no doubt, contained some abbreviation, such as sol. culc., that is, sollicite culcatum, and as this contraction was not understood, it developed into solatium collectum, solem collocare, solsadire, alsaccia. This solem collocare has brought about the formal sitting each day until sunset. In any case, if we compare the formula of the sulsadina, "triduum legibus custodire et solsatire" with the Roman "per dies triginta.....custodia, et excubiis sollertibus vigilanter obseruet," the derivation of the first from the second is obvious beyond a shadow of a doubt.

It is this solem culcare which has helped Lat. collocare to assume in the Romance languages the special meaning of "to lay down in bed," hence French se coucher "to go down (of the sun), lie down"; Ital. coricare, old colcare, Venetian colegar "to sit down, lie down, go to bed." In the Germanic languages sculca has given Engl. sculk, skulk "to lie in wait," Danish skulke "to lie in hiding, shirk," MLG. schûlen "to be hidden, to look furtively," dial. Swedish skula, skjula "to walk stooping," dial. Norwegian skjula, skulka, skulma, skylma "to look furtively, scowl," Dan. skjule, Swed. skyla, ONorse skýla "to protect," OHG. scûlinge "hiding place," Engl. scowl. So long as the meaning is "to lie in wait" one may safely assume a derivation from original sculca, but when the idea of protection is added, there is frequently a confusion with native German words related to Lat. scutum, or with words directly derived from it.

The scutarii, frequently mentioned as gentiles, are of common occurrence in the writers of the fifth and sixth century. They were a bodyguard of the emperors, forming a separate schola, and did not materially differ from those whom I have described as scholares. They occupied approximately the same position and by a philological transformation became the sculdasii of the eighth and later centuries. A Goth, Witterit, is mentioned in a document of 539 or 546 as a scutarius; that he was an agens in rebus is proved by his honorific title vd., i.e., vir devotus. (15) In the Langobard documents of the eighth century we find the transitional form sculdhoris, (16) and only in the Langobard laws and later do we get the customary sculdais, sculdhais, sculdasius. We get the forms scutarius, (17) schultarius, (18) schuldarius (19) in the tenth century, the latter two in the south of Italy, where they may well have preserved an older spelling, and so the development of the word is obviously scutarius > scultarius> sculdarius> sculdharis> sculdhais> sculdais. That this sculdais is identical, or nearly identical, in his functions with the Gothic scutarius is proved by his occupying a position after the vicecomes (20) and before the centenarius, (21) hence it is at once to be inferred that, like the wittiscalci of the Burgundians, the thungini of the Franks, the saiones of the Visigoths, he was an executor, a collector of debts, even if we did not have in the laws (22) the specific reference to him in this capacity and to his being a "vassus regius." (23) Hence his cheif duty consisted in summoning to court and catching thieves, that is, in superintending the sculca or sculta, that is, the solis collocare of the Franks. For this reason scutarius has here and in Germanic countries changed to scultarius.

The Gothic Bible translates "debtor" by dulgis skula and "creditor" by dulga haitja. The first literally means "debt ower," the second "debt compeller." This Goth. dulgs "debt" is related to OSlavic dlugu "debt," OIrish dliged "law, right, duty," dligim "I owe, have a right," Cornish dylly "owing," Breton dle "debt," etc. These are all derived from LLatin dulgere "to release," from Lat indulgere "to forgive." The Edict of Chilperic provides that when a slave has killed a freeman, his master should swear that he had nothing to do with the killing, and then he should turn the slave over or release him, "dulgat," to the relations of the slain man. (24) Dulgere is several times recorded in this sense in the eighth century, (25) especially in connection with obsides, hospites, because deserting the hostages was tantamount to breaking vows and starting a rebellion. (26) In the Formulae the usual formula of cession is (concedere et) indulgere. (27) Indulgences of two kinds were granted by the Roman emperors in the fourth and fifth centuries, those in regard to debts, under the name of indulgentiae debitorum, (28) for which the edicts run from the year 363 to 436, and those in regard to crimes, under the name of indulgentiae criminum, (29) from 322 to 410. The remission in regard to those in any way due to the state. The remission in regard to crimes took place on particular occasions, more especially on Easter day. (30) At first poisoners, murderers, adulterers were excluded from the indulgence, (31) then this exception was increased to include five crimes leading to capital punishment, (32) and this list kept growing (33) until it included all but petty crimes. (34) Hence (in)-dultum came to mean not only "remission of crimes," but also "holiday," hence Goth. dulþs "holiday," dulþjan "to celebrate," OHG. tult, dult "festival," ostertuldi "Easter," tuldjan "to celebrate." There are two series of crimes which are principally included in the amnesty, those arising from debt, and those arising from such petty crimes as do not call for serious criminal prosecution, hence we get from (in)dulgere in Goth. dulgs "debt" and OHG. tolg, tolc, OFrisian dolg, AS. dolg, dolh "wound," such as does not cause death, for then it would become "homicidium" and would not have been included in the indulgence. From this OHG. tolg, tolc comes an enormous group of words in Slavic, represented by the root tolk- "to beat, strike, thrash" and, at the same time, like OHG. dult, tult, represented in Polish tloka "voluntary work with dancing and eating," Lettish talka, talks, talkus "an evening entertainment for the workers" and from this ultimately comes, through the Norse, English talk.

The conception of "debt" has arisen in the Germanic, Slavic, and Celtic languages through contact with Roman law. Now the root dulg-, while universal in Europe, has not left any traces with that connotation in any of the Germanic languages outside of Gothic, and even the Gothic uses the other root skul-, skuld-, to express the idea of debt. Before proceeding to show how this has arisen from Lat. sculta, I shall show how another Latin term has produced the idea of "obligation" in the Germanic and Romance languages. The Roman laws called down heavy punishments upon the plagiator, the man who by solicitation inveigled boys and slaves to his house and later sold them beyond the sea. In the beginning of the sixth century we find, therefore, in Theodoric's Edict, plagiare "sollicitare" and plegium "the crime of detaining a boy or slave by solicitous actions." (35) The Visigothci laws have a whole series of enactments against the evil of plagiarism, from which it appears it differed from stealing in that the respective person was coaxed, "sollicitatus," to enter one's service. (36) At a later time plegium, plevium, plebium, etc., occur in the sense of "solicitude, care," in Frankish documents, (37) and are recorded since the sixth century in the sense of "security," but it is only since Norman times that plegium plevium "pledge" became really popular in France and in other countries. The AS. has preserved the word in all the successive stages of its semantic evolution. We have seen that plagiare meant "to solicit, entice, coax," hence AS. plegan, plaegan "to mock, deride, applaud, play, dance"; similarly plegium meant "the crime of soliciting, extreme penalty for such a crime," hence AS. plio, pleo, pleoh "danger, injury, fault," pliht "danger," plihtan "to expose to danger, pledge." Similarly we have OHG. phlëkan, phlëgan, plëgan "curare, ministrare, regere," phlicht "cura," ONorse plega "to exercise," plaga "to take care, guard, love," etc. From this group cannot be separated OSlav. plensati "to dance," Boh. plésati "plaudere, exsultare, saltare," Gothic plinsjan "to dance." The early recorded plevium has produced OFrench, Provençal plevir "pledge," Fr. pleige "surety," etc.

All the words connected with the idea "debt, guilt, pledge" have in the European languages arisen from the corresponding Latin terms, as the whole criminal procedure of the Germanic laws is but an evolution of the edicts of the Theodosian Code. Hence it would be extremely strange if OHG. sculd "facinus, crimen, reatum, debitum, causa" should have proceeded from a native word. I have already shown the confusion between scutarius and scultarius. It can be shown that this confusion was universal on Germanic ground. It is generally assumed that Lat. scutum "shield" is derived from a root sku- "to cover," which is very likely if we consider Gr. skutoj "hide, leather," but one thing is certain and that is, that it is only in the Latin that the idea "shield" has developed in this group, although a similar relation of "hide" and "shield" is found in the Sanskrit carma. Now, all the other European languages have derived the word for "shield" from Lat. scutum. We have Albanian sk'üt, sk'ut, (38) OIrish sciath, OWelsh scuit, OBreton scoit, Cornish ysguydh, OSlavic stitu. Hence it would again be extremely strange if Goth. skildus, ONorse skjoldr, AS. scyld, OHG. scilt were not derived from the same scutum, even because scutarius has by documentary evidence become confused with scultator. (39) The universal umlaut found in these words would indicate that they were derived through a source borrowing not from Latin, but from the Greek, where the identical word etymologically, skutoj, was confused with it; but that Lat. scutum was at an early time borrowed back into Greek, that is proved, not only by the later skouton, but also by skoutarioj, recorded in the second century.

There cannot be the slightest doubt that scultarius, derived from the older scutarius, and quite correctly in the OHG. form sculdhaizo, sculdheizo glossed as "praefectus, tribunus, procurator, quinquagenarius, praeco, exactor populi," was popularly understood to be the compeller of those crimes which demanded distress, that is, a sculta or sculca. Such crimes, as we have seen, were debts and those leading to capital punishment. Thus sculta came to mean those crimes themselves, precisely as dulgere "to remit the petty crimes or debts" led in all the European languages to the meanings "petty crime" and "debt." Sculta, then, meant "guilt, debt, compulsion, that which one owes." Indeed, OHG. gasculdôn is glossed by "exigere (culpa), promerere," gasculdan by "exigere (iram judicis)," sculdon by "promerere," and sculdan by "condemnare," the latter in the significant phrase "sculdante za gelte," "condemning to pay the fine." The underlying meaning is invariably "the compulsion in cases of debt or crime," hence Goth. skuldo "that which one owes, a debt, due," skulds "owing," and from this we get the back formations skula "debtor, liable to, in danger of," skulan "to owe, to be obliged to, to be about to." The Germanic philologist, who makes his facts fit in with his abstract laws, will be shocked at finding a preteropresent verb among those borrowed from a Latin root. It must not be forgotten that these verbs are for the greater part not found outside of the Germanic languages, that no Indo-Germanic root from which skulan may be derived has been discovered, and that this group, like Goth. daugan, which is also a preteropresent and borrowed from the Latin, entered the Germanic languages before the sixth century, even before the Anglo-Saxons had settled in Britain, and while the Germanic tribes had not yet separated.

The other Germanic languages need not detain us, except the Anglo-Saxon, where we have not only scyld "sin, crime, guilt," but also gylt "crime, sin, fault, debt, guilt," which is, no doubt, developed directly from Welsh gwyliad, gwyliat, OBreton guiliat "a watching." The Slavic languages do not seem to have any derivatives from this group, having borrowed from the older root dulg-. Lithuanian has skola "debt," skylu, skilau "to fall into debt," skeliu "to owe," but also words without an initial s, such as kalte "debt, crime," kaltas "guilty."


1. "Post hoc erant ferentarii et levis armatura, quos nunc exculcatores (scultatores, exscultatores) et armaturas dicimus," XXVII. 10. 10. [Back]

2. E. Böcking, Notitia dignitatum, Bonnae 1839-1853, vol. II, p. 228. [Back]

3. MGH., Gregorii I. Registri, vol. I, p. 130. [Back]

4. "Si ille uero quod per vestigio sequitur, quod si agnoscere dicit, illi alii proclamantem, nec auferre per tertia manum voluerit nec solem secundum legem colocauerit (collegauerit, colecauerit, culcauerit, calcauerit) et tulisse conuincitur, MCC din.," XXVII. 3. [Back]

5. "Si dominus serui supplicia distulerit et seruus praesens fuerit, continuo domino illo qui repetit solem collegere (colecare, culcare, collocare) debet. Et eadem septem noctes placitum facere debet ut seruum suum ad supplicium tradat. Quod si ad septem noctes seruo ipso tradere distulerit, solem ei qui repetit collecit (colecit, culcet, collicet, collocet); ed sic iterum ad alias septem noctes placitum faciat id est ad XIIII noctes de prima admonitione conpleantur. ....Tunc repetens solem ei cum testibus collegare (colecit, culcet, collecit, collicet, colocare, collocet) debet," XL. 7 ff. [Back]

6. "Si aliquis alteri aliquid prestiterit de rebus suis et noluerit reddere.......sic ei solem collocit (colecit, culcet, collecit, collicet, culcauerit, collocet)," LII; "si quis ad mallum uenire contempserit......tunc eum debet manire ante regem, hoc est an noctes XIIII, et tria testimonia iurare debent quod ibi fuerunt ubi eum manibit et solem collocauit (collegato sol sista, culcat solem, sola legauit, collicet ei solem, collocent ei solem)," LVI; similarly LVII. 1, 2; CVI. 7, 8. [Back]

7. "Et is si ibidem non conueniret aut certe si uenire distulerit, qui ipsum admallauit ibi eum solisacire (solsatire, sole latere) debet, et inde postea iterata uice ad noctes XIIII eum rogare debet, ut in illo mallobergo respondere aut conuenire ubi antrusciones mitti iure debent," CVI. [Back]

8. "Sed venientis ad eo placitum ipsi agentis jam dicto abbati, Noviento, in ipso palacio nostro, per triduo seo per plures dies, ut lex habuit, placitum eorum vise sunt custudissent, et ipso Ermenoaldo abbati abjectissent vel solsadissent.....testimuniavit quod....placitum eorum ligebus custudierunt, et superscriptus Ermenoaldus abba, placitum suum custudire neclixsit" (692), Sauer and Samaran, op. cit., p. 15; "sed veniens ad eo placeto praedictus Chrotcharius, Valencianis, in ipso palacio nostro, et dum placetum suum ligebus custodibat, vel ipso Amalberctho sulsadibat, sic veniens ex parte filius ipsius Amalberctho, nomene Amalricus, sulsadina sua contradixissit....Et postia memmoratus Chrotcharius per triduum aut per amplius, placitum suum, ut lex habuit, custodissit, et ipso Amalberctho abjectissit vel sulsadissit" (693), ibid., p. 16. [Back]

9. "Noticia solsadii, qualiter vel quibus presentibus illi homo placetum suum adtendit Andecavis civetate....Qui ipsi iam superius nomenati placitum eorum legebus a mane usque ad vesperum visi fuerunt custodisse," Form. Andec., 12; "et ipsi illi ad placetum suum adfuit et triduum legebus custodivit et solsadivit," ibid., 13; "qui illi ad placitum adfuit una cum antestis suis, per legibus triduum custodivit et solsadivit," ibid., 14; "qui illi et germano suo illi placito illi de manum usque ad vesperum placitum suum legibus custodivit et solsadivit," ibid., 53; "a quo placito veniens memoratus illi in palacio nostro, et per triduo seu amplius, ut lex habuit, placitum suum custodisset vel memorato illo abiectisset vel solsatisset.....antedictus ille placitum suum legibus custodivit et eum abiectivit vel solsativit," Marculfi form., I. 37; "sed memoratus quidem ille per triduum suum custodivit placitum et iam dicto illo secundum legem obiectivit vel solsativit," Form. Turon. 33. [Back]

10. See note 2, p. 29 [Back].

11. See note 3, p. 26 [Back].

12. "Iniuriosus tamen ad placitum in conspectu regis Childeberthi advenit et per triduum usque occasum solis observavit," Greg. Turon. Hist. Franc., VII. 23. [Back]

13. "Si vindicari in aliquos seuerius, contra nostram consuetudinem, pro causae intuitu, iusserimus, nolumus statim eos aut subire poenas, aut excipere sententiam, sed per dies XXX. super statu eorum sors et fortuna suspensa sit: reos sane accipiat vinciatque custodia, et excubiis sollertibus vigilanter observuet" (382), Cod. Theod. IX. 40. 13. [Back]

14. Cod. Theod. XIV. 27. 1. [Back]

15. Marini, I pap. dipl., p. 172. [Back]

16. Troya, op. cit., vol. V, p. 132 (762), 241 (763), 711 (773). [Back]

17. Ughelli, Italia sacra, 2. ed., vol. II, col. 103. [Back]

18. Ibid., 1. ed., vol. VIII, col. 602. [Back]

19. Ibid., col. 605. [Back]

20. "Dux comes uicecomes sculdacio gastaldio decanus" (904), HPM., Chartœ, vol. I, col. 108; "dux comes uicecomes sculdatio decanus saltarius vicarius" (926), ibid., col. 128; "dux marchio comes vicecomes sculdatio gastaldius aut ullus reipublicae exactor" (969), ibid., col. 222; "dux archiepiscopus marchio episcopus comes vicecomes sculdacius gastaldus" (992), ibid., col. 290; "dux marchio comes vicecomes sculdascius locopositus aut quislibet publicus actor" (894), L. Schiaparelli, I diplomi di Berengario I, p. 45; similarly p. 51 (896), 79 (899), etc.; "dux comes vicecomes scutarius" (904), Ughelli, Italia sacra, vol. II, col. 103; "dux marchio comes vicecomes sculdaxio" (950), ibid., col. 104. [Back]

21. "Praecipiunt ad sculdahis suos, aut ad centenarios, aut ad locopositos" (747), MGH., Leg. Langob., Rat. 1. [Back]

22. "Si homo liber qui debitor est, alias res non habuerit nisi caballos domitos aut iunctorios, seu vaccas, tunc ille qui debitum requirit, vadat ad sculdahis et intimet causam suam, quia debitor ipsius alias res non habet, nisi quae supra leguntur. Tunc sculdahis tollat bobes et caballos ipsius et ponat eos post creditorem, dum usque ei iustitia faciat," Roth. 251. [Back]

23. "Ingelrico sculdassio uassum eidem odolrici comis et ancione qui sculdassio uassum eidem comis" (887), HPM., Chartae, vol. I, col. 75. [Back]

24. "Dulgat seruum hoc est de licentia parentibus coram parentes qui occisus est, et de ipso quod uoluerint faciant, et ille sit exolutus," Lex sal., LXXVIII. 5. [Back]

25. "Quantum in ipsa donatione continet, et a die praesente trado, dulgo, atque transcribo," in Ducange, sub dulgere. [Back]

26. "Cupiebat supradictus Haistolfus nefandus rex mentiri, quae antea pollicitus fuerat, obsides dulgere, sacramenta irrumpere" (756), in Ducange. [Back]

27. "Volemus esse translatum atque indultum," Form. Andec. 46; "probamus esse indultum," Marc. form., I. 4; "omnia ex omnibus.....habeant indultum," Form. Turon. 21; "ex nostra indulgentia visi fuimus concessisse atque indulgisse," Cart. Senon. 36; "in omnibus habeat concessum atque indultum," Form. Sal. Bignom. 2; "sibi habeat concessum atque indultum," Form. Cod., E. Emmerani frag. II. 9. [Back]

28. Cod. Theod. XI. 28. [Back]

29. Cod. Theod. IX. 38.v [Back]

30. "Ob diem Paschae (quam intimo corde celebramus) omnibus quos reatus adstringit, carcer inclusit, claustra dissoluimus" (367), IX. 38. 3; "Paschae celebritas postulat, vt quoscunque nunc aegra expectatio quaestionis, poenaque formido sollicitat, absoluamus" (368), IX. 38. 4; "paschalis laetitiae dies ne illa quidam tenere sinit ingenia, quae flagitia fecerunt: pateat insuetis horridus carcer aliquando luminibus" (381), X. 38. 6; "religio anniuersariae obsecrationis hortatur, vt omnes omnino periculo carceris metuque poenarum eximi iuberemus" (384), IX. 38. 7; "vbi primum dies Paschalis extiterit, nullum teneat carcer inclusum, omnia vincla soluantur" (385), IX. 38. 8. [Back]

31. "Praeter veneficos, homicidas, aldulteros" (322), IX. 38. 1. [Back]

32. "Exceptis quinque criminibus, quae capite vindicantur" (353), IX. 38. 2. [Back]

33. "Adtamen sacrilegus, in maiestate reus, in mortuos veneficus, siue maleficus, adulter, raptor, homicida, communione istius muneris separentur" (367), IX. 38. 3; "ne temere homicidii crimen, adulterii foeditatem, maiestatis iniuriam maleficiorum scelus, insidias venenorum, raptusque violentiam sinamus euadere" (368), IX. 38. 4. A still longer list in the succeeding laws. [Back]

34. "Quis enim 1. sacrilego diebus sanctis indulgeat? quis 2. adultero, vel incesti reo tempore castitatis ignoscat? quis non raptorem in summa quiete et gaudio communi persequatur instantius? 5. Nullam accipiat requiem vinculorum, qui quiescere sepultos quodam sceleris immanitate non siuit; patiatur tormenta 6. veneficus, 7. maleficus. 8. adulteratorque monetae: 9. homicida, quod fecit semper expectet: 10. reus etiam maiestatis, de domino aduersum quem talia molitus est, veniam sperare non debet" (385), IX. 38. 8. [Back]

35. "Qui ingenuum plagiando, id est sollicitando, in alia loca translatum aut vendiderit, aut donaverit, vel suo certe servitio vindicandum crediderit, occidatur," 78. [Back]

36. "Quicquid ad discum nostrum dare debet, unusquisque iudex in sua habeat plebio qualiter bona et optima atque bene studiose et nitide omnia sint conposita quicquid dederint" (800), MGH., Cap., vol. I, p. 85; "et ferramenta, quod in hostem ducunt, in eorum habeant plebio qualiter bona sint et iterum quando revertuntur in camera mittantur," ibid., p. 87; "quicquid ipsi in pace violanda delinquerint, ad ipsius debet plivium pervenire" (823), ibid., vol. II, p. 305. [Back]

37. "De seruum ecclesiae aut fiscalinis uel cuiuslibet si aliquo quicumque in potestatem ad sorte aut ad plibium (pleuium, plebeium, plebium) promouatur, ut ipse precius dominum reformetur," Decretio Chlotharii regis: "si quicumque homo alienum servum de capitale crimine amallaverit, et ei ad sacramentum non crediderit, nisi subscribere eum vult, de presente plebat, hoc est subscribat suum servum alterum talem, qua ille est, cui reputat," Lex romana raet. curien., IX. 4. [Back]

38. G. Mayer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der albanischen Sprache, Strassburg 1891, p. 388. Mayer thinks that Lat. scutum should have given šk'üt, not sk'üt, but he contradicts himself immediately by admitting that skutér "chief herdsman" is from Gr. skoutarioj, Lat. scutarius "shield bearer, famulus, domesticus." [Back]

39. The very form sculdhor, which I have found twice recorded, may be a direct corruption of scultator. [Back]

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