The Northern Way

Commentary To the Germanic Laws and Medieval Documents

Chapter II

(Page 1)


The chief judge of the Salic and the Ribuarian Franks is called comes or grafio. In the early Merovingian documents the two terms are not identical, because the grafio is mentioned after the comes. (1) The grafio has arisen from the merging of a number of different offices to which the honorific title "tua gravitas" was attached. In the Theodosian Code this refers to the praefectus praetorio (2), praefectus urbi, (3) vicarius, (4) praesus, (5) dux. (6) Cassiodorus thus addresses senators and magistrates (7) and in several documents in Ostrogothic times high acting city officials receive this title. (8) Now the Theodosian Code classes the following officers together, praefectus praetorio, vicarius, rector provinciae, and places them before the minor judges, hence we get for them very nearly the rank of the Frankish grafio of the early times. But it is in England where this grafio, a contraction of gravatas, has been preserved in all the various offices to which the title rightly belonged. The Latin praepositus, praefectus, vicecomes are given as equivalents of AS. grefe, greve, (9) and the compounds portgrevius "city provost," tunesgerefa "praefectus de villa," weardgerefa "prepositus custodum" show that greve and gravitas are identical as regards the duties they had to perform.

In the Ribuarian law grafio is the translation of "iudex fiscalis," (10) but he is once distinguished from the comes, (11) even as he is several times mentioned along with the comes in the Salic law, (12) but in the latter case the two seem already to be confounded, for while certain laws speak of the comes, (13) corresponding laws mention him as grafio. The comes or grafio was the higher judge, but by his side there existed a judge sitting in minor cases, whose duty finally deteriorated into that of an executor, a confiscator. That was the tunginus, who developed out of the Roman ducenarius.

Suetonius tells us that Augustus introduced a new order of ducenarii who sat in minor cases, (14) and from Eusebius and Cyprian we learn that the dignity was coveted by many, (15) since, as we are told by Suetonius, the procurator ducenarius was invested with consular dignity, (16) and St. Jerome placed him immediately after the senator. (17) In the fourth century the ducenarius is mentioned by the side of the centenarius, while his office is called ducena, (18) and the dignity of the ducenarius was still recognized in the fifth century. (19) The ducenarii were apparently somewhat arbitrary in their methods, for their transgressions in executing orders called forth severe measures against them, and it was especially provided for that they could not summon a debtor without due warrant, and in case of false arrest they were severely punished. (20)

The Frankish tunginus, thunginus is in every particular identical with the ducenarius. He is mentioned with the centenarius, but obviously as occupying a higher position. (21) The Pithoean glosses say that the thunginus is the judge who comes after the count and who elsewhere is called decanus. (22) The thunginus, like the ducenarius, collects debts, but only with a due warrant, and, mindful of the severe punishment meted out to him in case of false arrest, is very slow in bring the debtor into court. The law of the year 315 completely explains the procedure in De fides factas. If a freeman or letus has loaned money to a person and cannot collect it, he summons him to court nexti canthichius, saying, "I ask you, thunginus, nexti canthichus gasacio meo him who owes me the money." Then the thunginus must say, "nexthe ganthicio I him, as the Salic law demands." Still the thunginus does not dare to collect the debt, but sits with a posse before the house of the debtor, allowing the debt to grow larger by fines. Finally the grafio, after similar ceremonial delays, dares to proceed against the defendant. (23)

We shall first ascertain what the mysterious words nexte canthichius, about which so much learned nonsense has been written, mean. First we shall put down all the readings in the various codes preserved for the queer formula, in order to see whether some approach to intelligibility may not thus be gained.
1. nexti canthichius, nexticantigyus, nestiganti huius, sicti cantidios, sicum nestigante, nestigante huius, nestigantio sic.
2. nexti canthichus gasacio, nexticantigyus gasacium, nestiganti his sagatio, instigante cuius cassatium, nestigantio cassahone, nestigante gasationum, ne istigante gassachio.
3. nexthe ganthichio, nexticantigium, nestigante, instigante, nestigatio, instigante ego sagatium, nestigantio gasachio.

The only intelligible word one gets out of this chaos is the Latin instigante, and this is a correct and important reading. Among the Ostrogoths the warrant of the saio contained the words te compellente, te imminente, (24) that is, the sovereign gave the saio the right to compel, hence imminens itself became the equivalent for "confiscator, saio." (25) We can now see how saio, that is, socio, came to take the place of "exactor." The documents show that the usual formula of confiscation was rather "socio fisco coactus exsolvere" than "te imminente coactus exsolvere," because the usual confiscation was by order of the fiscus and not by special edict of the sovereign, even as we have recorded in Cassiodorus. But if te imminente has produced imminens "confiscator," socio fisco must similarly produce socio, saio "confiscator," as has actually happened.

Among the Visigoths the warrant reads iudice insistente, (26) that is, "by authority of the judge." The Frankish and other Germanic laws occasionally employ such phrases, but socio fisco or a similar combination, as has already been shown, generally take their place. But in the mysterious formula of the Salic law there can be nothing but a corruption of instigante iudice causacio mea (audiatur), as may be judged from the recorded Ostrogothic "te imminente causa legibus audiatur," for it is only by a proper warrant that the thunginus could cause any arrest. The thunginus did not survive long among the Franks, for in the later period we hear only of the count as a judge. In the Ribuarian law he is not mentioned at all, but the phrase of the appeal to the thunginus, which in intelligible language was, "rogo te, tungine, ut insistente iudice causacio mea audiatur," is employed in the corrupted form, "ego te tangano ut mihi legem dicas." (27) Precisely the same phrase is used in the identical case in the Salic law, so we shall investigate the latter.

If the rachinburgii, sitting in the malloberg, refuse to hear a case, then the plaintiff says, "I tangon you to hear my case according to the Salic law." If the rachinburgii still refuse, they pay three solidi by distress, and if they refuse once more they are once more distrained and pay fifteen solidi. (28) The derivation of this law from the De fides factas is obvious. The rachinburgii are placed in a position of debtors who refuse to pay their just debts. A warrant has to be sworn out for distress, and the procedure is the same as in the former case. The incomprehensible address to the tunginus is here turned into a verb tangonare, which has survived in the French tangonner "to urge on, prod," and this word tangono is taken as an expression for a distrainable action, hence in the Ribuarian law it is distinctly provided that interpellations in court are not distrainable, "sine tangano loquitur." (29) Just as socio fisco has produced saio "confiscator," and distringente fisco has given English distrain, so tungine of the warrant for distress has produced tangono "I appeal for a warrant to levy distress, I urge action, compel."

We can now determine what became of the centenarius of the Theodosian Code and the Salic law. In the Pactus pro tenore pacis, variously dated from 511-558, Chlotar complains that the night watches failed to catch the thieves, that, therefore, centenae be established. The rest of the decree is puzzling, but it is clear that if the thief is caught by a trustis, the latter gets half of the fine. (30) The conclusion of the Pactus makes it clear that the centenarii are those who are called in truste. (31) Some manuscripts have the word antrustio for in truste, (32) and there are recorded many variant forms antrutio, antrusio, etc. For in truste we get once the significant reading ex truste. (33) If we now turn to Edictum Chilperici, of the year 561-584, we find that the antrustiones are mentioned after the obtimates, that is, they rank with the agentes in rebus, the confiscators. This is proved by the statement that the graphio goes with seven rachinburgii antrustionis to confiscate property. (34) Indeed, this very passage contains the word from which trustis is derived. it is the word extrudere "to evict, confiscate," (35) in which sense it is classical Latin and is used as a legal term by Ulpian. Instead of the participle extrusus we have here the form extruste, which the other manuscripts have changed to intruste, antrustio, even as Visigothic ex squalido was in Italy changed to in gualdo. (36) But that extrudere is the correct word from which this trustis is derived is proved conclusively by the Lex ribuaria, where the identical law has strude or trude for "confiscation" (37) and in strute regia, corrected to in truste regia for the Salic trustis. (38)

In the Theodosian Code we frequently find solatium used in the sense of "pecuniary aid," almost the same as "salarium." Throughout the sixth century and later it has the meaning of "support, help," (39) hence solatium collectum is "a posse," (40) though I shall show later that it has arisen from an entirely different phrase. From this application of solatium to the duty of the antrustiones have developed the various connotations of trustis. Since trustis is a synonym of solatium, it itself means "solatium, auxilium, consolatio, spes,"---meanings which appear in German trôst, etc., while trustis has also the connotation of fides. (41) An antrustio is the equal of a fidelis, and so we have the Ribuarian form drudus "trusted friend," in the phrase "solatium drudorum," recorded in 858. (42)

If we now turn to the Visigothic laws, we find another equivalent for the exactor or confiscator. The ancient law of Theudis calls him compulsar vel executor. (43) The later laws emply compulsor exercitus, servus dominicus, (44) or thiufadus. The latter, who is not only a military official, but also a judge, (45) rates directly after the comes or vicarius, (46) that is, he occupies precisely the same position that the thunginus does in Merovingian times, even as the servus dominicus is the same as puer regius of the Salic law. It is generally assumed that Gothic thiufadus is derived from thusundifaths "millenarius," but that is impossible by any criterion one may choose. Such a contraction is simply impossible, and the thiufadus is not identical with the millenarius, for the millenarius is mentioned with and above the thiufadus. It is quite true, in the military hierarchy the thiufadus was identified with an officer above the centenarius, hence naturally he stood somewhere near and may even have been identified with the millenarius. As a judge the thiufadus occupied a position below the count, hence is absolutely identical with the ducenarius of the Theodosian Code and the thunginus of the Franks, even as the Codex Parisinus Lat. 4670 (47) correctly glosses thiufadus with "vassus regis," an exact rendering of the Salic "puer regius." I have already pointed out that the compulsor, in fact all the agentes in rebus, of which the thiufadus is one, were known as devoti. (48) Hence theiufadus can be nothing but thiwadus, that is, Lat. devotus, the honorific title of the executive officer who, as we have seen from the Ostrogothic documents, was generally a Goth.

We can now proceed to the determination of the origin of the Burgundian confiscator, the wittiscalcus. To do this we must first establish the proper meaning of senior in the Visigothic laws. Here we have the seniores palatii, aulae, (49) who represent the higher officials at the court, in which sense seniores is used elsewhere. (50) These references are all from laws promulgated in the second half of the seventh century. In the Antiquae this word is nowhere employed, but in the subscriptions of illustrious men to the acts of the Third Council of Toledo (589) the reading "similiter et omnes seniores Gothorum subscripserunt" (51) follows after the signatures of the clergy and "viri illustres." Omnes seniores Gothorum" was still used in a law of the first half of the seventh century, (52) where it apparently is secondary to "primates palatii," and this is borne out by the use of "seniores loci" for officials below the comes or iudex. (53) Obviously we here observe in the seventh century the development of senior in the sense of dominus, but in the sixth century it seems to have had an inferior meaning, the "seniores Gotorum" standing below the highest officials. Beginning witht he Council of Toledo of the year 653, for which we have a series of signatures, the "viri illustres officii palatini" consist of the good Byzantine hierarchy of "comes cubiculariorum, notariorum, patrimoniorum, spatariorum, thesaurorum, stabuli," and of the mysterious comes scanciarum, (54) but of the "seniores Gotorum" there is not a trace. We know from the Germanic root of this scancia that it must been "butlery." Ducange has no early quotations for the word, but the only two recorded quotations from the Latin documents for scalcus give it the meaning of "butler," (55) hence there can be no doubt that the two are identical in origin. This may be shown in another way.


1. MGH., Dipl., p. 58 (693), and in other documents, even in Carolingian times: "virisque inlustribus, ducibus, comitibus, domesticis, grafionibus, vicariis, centenariis eorumque iunioribus" (816), MGH., Formulae, p. 307. Back

2. VII. 4. 9, VIII. 5. 3, XIV. 3. 20. Back

3. XIV. 4. 2. Back

4. VI. 35. 4. Back

5. II. 6. 2, VI. 31. 1. Back

6. VIII. 4. 4. Back

7. Variae, in Vocabulary, sub gravitas. Back

8. "Una cum vestra gravitate oportet praesentibus actoribus traditionem fieri" (489), Marini, I pap. dipl., p. 129; "vestram Reatinae Civitatis municipes gravitatem.......fidejussorem vestrae praebeo gravitati" (557), ibid., p. 122 f. Back

9. Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, in Vocabulary. Back

10. LI, LIII, LXXXIV. Back

11. LXXXVIII. Back

12. "In mallo iudici, h. e. comite aut grafione," Cap. II. 3; "sic debet iudex, hoc est comes aut grafio, ad loco accedere," III. 1. Back

13. Cap. IX. 1, Extravag. B. 1, 2. Back

14. "Ad tres judicum decurias quartam addidit, ex inferiori censu quam Ducenariorum vocaretur, judicaretque de levioribus causis," In Augustum, cap. XXXII. Back

15. "Sublatusque fuit mundanis dignitatibus: ducenarius potius quam episcopus vocari volens," Cyprianus I Epis. IV; Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica, VII. 30. Back

16. "Ornamenta consularia etiam procuratoribus ducenariis indulsit," In Claudium, cap. XXXIV. Back

17. "Post tribunum primicerius, deinde senator, ducenarius, biarchus, circitor, eques," Ad Pammachum. Back

18. "Primipilaribus post emeritam militiam, perfectissimatus, vel ducenae, vel centenae, vel egregiatus dari potest" (317), Cod. Theod. VIII. 4. 3; "Caesarianos in actu dumtaxat constitutos, ad perfectissimatus, vel ducenae bel centenae, vel egregiatus dignitates non opportet admitti" (317), ibid., X. 7. 1, and XII. 1. 5. Back

19. "Sumentibus ducenariis principatum hanc tribuimus facultatem, ut his pro se liberos ac fratres suos in eadem militia serenitatis nostrae nutu liceat conclocare" (396), ibid., VI. 23. 8; "qui ex agentum in rebus numero, militae ordine ac labore decurso, ducenae dignitatis meruerit principatum, aut qui viro inlustri magistro officiorum, ut probatus fuit adiutor, eo tempore quo iam honoratis viris coeperit adgregari, eorum, qui vicariam egerint praefecturam honore potiatur" (426), ibid., VI. 27. 20, 21. Back

20. "Si quis se a ducenariis, vel centenariis, ac precipue fisci advocatis, laesum esse cognoscit, adire iudicia ac probare iniuriam non moretur, ut in eum qui convictus fuerit conpetenti severitate vindicetur" (315), ibid., VIII. 10. 1; "ducenarios ab exactione provincialium secundum constitutionem sacrae memoriae Constantini sinceritas tua iubebit arceri" (364), ibid., XI. 7. 9; "ducenarii, et centenarii, sive sexagenarii, non prius debent aliquem convenire, quam a tabulario civitatis nominatim brevis accipiant debitorum. Quam quidem exactionem sine omni fieri concussione oportet, ita ut, si quis in iudicio questus, quod indebite exactus est, et aliquam inquietudinem sustinuit, hoc ipsum probare potuerit, severa in exactores sententia proferatur" (315), ibid., XI. 7. 1. Back

21. "Ante thunginum aut centenario," Lex salica XLIV. 1; "Thunginus aut centenarius mallo indicant," XLVI. 1; "mallo quem thunginus aut centenarius indixerit," XLVI. 4. Back

22. "Thunginus: iudex qui post comitem est. degan. sollensib." Back

23. "Si quis ingenuus aut letus alteri fidem fecerit, tunc ille cui fides facta est in XL noctes aut quomodo illius cum testibus uel cum illo qui praecium adpreciare debent accedere debet. Et si ei noluerit fidem facta soluere, mal thalasciasco, hoc est sol. XV super debitumquod fidem fecerit culp. iud. Si adhuc noluerit conponere debet eum ad mallum manire et sic nexti canthichius malare debet: Rogo te, thungine, ut nexti canthichus gasacio meo illo qui mihi fedem fecit et debitum debeat unde ei fidem fecerat. Tunc thunginus dicere debet: nexthe ganthichio ego illo in hoc quod lex salega ait. Tunc ipse cui fides facta est testare debet ut nulli alteri nec soluat nec pignus donet solutionis, nisi ante ille impleat quod ei fidem fecerat. Et festinanter ad domum illius illa die antequam sol collecet cum testibus ambulare debet et rogare sibi debitum soluere. Si hoc noluerit facere, solem ei collocet. Tunc si solem collocauerit, CXX dinarios qui faciunt solidos III super debitum adcrescant. Istud usque ad tres vices per tres nondenas fieri debet, et in tercio ista omnia facta si noluerit conponere, usque ad CCCLX dinarios h. e. solidos novem adcrescat, id est ut per singulas admonitiones vel solem collocatum terni solidi super debitum adcrescant," L. Back

24. "Ad iudicium comitis Dudae saepe dictus saio te compellente veniat audiendus," Cassiodorus, Variae, IV. 27; "te debeat imminente construi," II. 39; "mox ei praedium cum alio eiusdem meriti vobis imminentibus a pervasore reddatur," III. 20; "te imminente cogantur exsolvere debitas functiones," IV. 14; "ut coram partibus positis te imminente censeatur," IV. 32; "imminente Duda saione nostro," IV. 39; "te imminente causa legibus audiatur," IV. 46; "ad iudicium competens te imminente conveniant," v. 31. Back

25. "Proinde factum ut curiales.......imminentum sollicitudine coacti gravia damna sentirent," II. 25; "ipse enim imminentem necessarium facit, qui sollemnia praebere distulerit," XII. 8. Back

26. "Et si potentior fuerit, insistente iudice quartam partem facultatum suarum amittat," II. 4. 14; "mox iubente principe vel quolibet iudice insistente non solum castrationem virium perferat, sed insuper illam in se iacturam excipiat ultionis," III. 5. 7; "insistente iudice cogantur exolvere," V. 6. 6; "ad integrum ipso (iudice) insistente," VII. 4. 4; "eundem servam pro facti temeritate insistente iudice ei, cuius res invasit vel abstulit, serviturum tradere non desistat," VIII. 1. 5; "ut, si Goti de Romanorum tertiam quippiam tulerint, iudice insistente Romanis cuncta reforment," X. 1. 16; "iudice insistente heredibus mortui cogatur exolvere," XI. 2. 1. Back

27. "Si quis causam suam prosequitur, et reginburgii inter eos secundum legem Ribuariam dicere noluerint, tunc illi, in quem sententiam contrariam dixerit dicat: Ego vos tangano ut mihi legem dicatis," LV. Back

28. "Si qui rachineburgii in mallobergo sedentes dum causam inter duos discutiunt, legem dicere noluerint, debet eis dicere ab illo qui causa prosequitur: hic ego vos tancono ut legem dicatis secundum legem Salegam. Quod si ille dicere noluerint, septem de illos rachineburgios CXX dinarios qui faciunt solidos III ante solem collocatum culpabiles iudicentur. Quod si nec legem dicere noluerint nec de ternos solidos fidem facerent, solem illis collocatum, DC dinarios qui faciunt solidos XV culpabiles iudicentur," LVII. Back

29. "Quod si quis in iudicio pro servo interpellatus fuerit, quod si servos tales non fuerit, unde dominus eius de fiducia securus esse posset, in iudicio respondeat ad interrogationes: 'Stat tu,' et liceat ei sine tanganus (tangano, tancano, tagano, tangno) loquere et dicere: 'Ego ignoro'", XXX. 1; "hoc etiam constituemus, ut nullum hominem regium, Romanum vel tabularium interpellatum in iudicio non tanganet (tangat, tangenet) et nec alsaccia requirat," LVIII. 19; "absque tangano coniurent," LVIII. 29; "si quis in iudicio interpellatus cartam per manibus habuerit, nulle ei male ordine vel invasio requeratur; quia dum interpellatus respondit ad interrogatione Sta. tu, et sine tangano loquatur et dicat; non malo ordine sed per testamentum hoc teneo," LIX. 8. Back

30. "Quod si post (per) truste inuenitur, medietate conpositione truste (trustis, trustes) adquirat," J. Hessels and H. Kern, Lex salica, p. 417. Back

31. "Pro itinere pacis iubemus ut in truste centenariae ponantur, per quorum fide atque sollicitudine pax praedicta seueritas. Ut centenariae latro licet prae esse caritatis indisrupta uinculum ut centenariae inter communes prouintias licentiam habeant latrones sequi uel uestigia adsignata minare aut in truste qua defecerat, sicut dictum est causa remaneat, ita ut continuo capitalem ei quem perdiderat reformare festinet, et latronem perquirat, quem sine (si in) truste peruenient, medietate sibi uindicet uel dilatura si fuerit de facultate latronis ei qui damno pertulerit sartiatur," ibid., p. 418. Back

32. "Qui in truste dominica (antruscione dominico) fuit," XLI. 3; "sine truste dominica (andruscio dominicus) fuit," XLII. 1. Back

33. "Si quis hominem in hoste occiserit, triplici conpositione conponant sicut in patria conponere debuit, excepto si ex truste (truxte) regale non fuerit ille homo. Nam si ex truste regale fuerit," etc., LXIII. 1, 2 Lex emendata. Back

34. "Pertractantes in Dei nomine cum uiris magnificentissimis obtimatibus uel antrustionibus et omni populi graphio cum VII rachymburgiis antrutionis bonis credentibus, aut quis sciant accionis, a casa illius ambulent et pretium faciunt, et quod graphio tollere debet ....nam agens et qui mallat ipsum ad nos adducant, et adtrutionis secundum legem consecutus habuerit inter octuaginta et IIII noctes ipsa inuitatio et lex faciat sicut superius scriptum est," ibid., p. 409 f. Back

35. "Et si rachymburgiis nec VII nec III dare potuerit nec dat graphio et ille qui accepit res illius quem contra legem et iustitiam extruderit et ille qui male inuitauit soluat, cui res si dixerit illi cui res tolluntur quod male eum destruat, et contra legem et iustitia," ibid., p. 410. Back

36. See p. 84 ff. Back

37. "Quod si ad septimo mallo non venerit, tunc illi, qui eum manit, ante comite cum septem raginburgiis in haraho iurare debit, quod eum ad strude (istrudem, trude) legitima admallatum habet; et sic iudex fiscalis ad domum illius accedere debet, et legitima strude exinde auferre et ei tribuere qui eum interpellavit.....quod si ipsam strudem (trudem) contradicere voluerit, et ad ianuam suam cum spata tracta accesserit, et eam in porta sive in poste posuerit, tunc iudex fideiussores ei exigat, ut se ante regem repraesentit, et ibidem cum arma sua contra contrarium suum re studeat defensare," XXXII. 3, 4; "si quis iudicem fiscalem ad res alienas iniuste tollendas, antequam ei fidem fecerit, aut ad extrodo (extrudo, exdrote, exstrudem, strude) admallatum habuerit, invitare praesumpserit, bis vicinos et quinos solidos multetur," LI. 1. Back

38. "Si quis eum interficerit qui in strute (truste, dustria) regia est," XI. 1. Back

39. "Experientia itaque tua praefato supplici ecclesiastica non desinat impertire solacia," Gregorii I Registri, IX. 209; "Bonifatium notarium evocatus ad solatium Chlodovechi," Gregorii Turonensis Historia Francorum, in MGH. p., 104; "Theudoricus autem, Chlothacharium fratrem et Theudobertum filium in solatio suo adsumptos, cum exercitu abiit," ibid., p. 115. Back

40. "Qui vero edictum nostrum ausus fuerit contempnere, in cuiuslibet iudicis pago primitus admissum fuerit, ille iudex collectum solatium ipsum raptorem occidat" (596), Childeberti Secundi Decretio, in MGH., Capitularia, vol. I, p. 16; "agentes igitur episcoporum aut potentum per potestatem nullius res collecta solacia nec auferant, nec cuiuscumque contemptum per se facere non praesument" (614), ibid., p. 23. Back

41. "Rectum est, ut qui nobis fidem, pollicerentur inlesam, nostro tueantur auxilio. Et quia illi fidelis, Deo propitio, noster venens ibi in palatio nostro una cum arma sua in manu nostra trustem et fidelitatem nobis visus est coniurasse: propterea per presentem preceptum decernemus ac iobemus, ut deinceps memoratus ille inter numero antruscionorum (antrustionorum, andrustionorum) conputetur," Marculfi Formulae, I. 18. Back

42. "Sine adiutorio uxoris ac filiorum et sine solatio et comitatu drudorum atque vassorum nuda et desolata exibit," MGH., Capitularia, vol. II, p. 429. Back

43. "Simili hetiam conpulsores vel executores decreto prestringimus, ut non pro sua conmoda exigant volumtate, sed ab eis, quos propria evectione conpulerint, subvectum tantum super eum accipiant caballorum. Nec illi prius conmoda conpulsionis exigant, quam suas in iudicio exerent actiones," MGH., Lex Visig., p. 468. Back

44. "Servi dominici, id est compulsores exercitus, quando Gotos in hostem ire compellunt, si eis aliquid tulerint........restituere non morentur," IX. 2. 2; "servi dominici, qui in hoste exire conpellunt," IX. 2. 5. Back

45. "Cum ceteris negotiis criminalium etiam causarum thiuphadis iudicandi concessa licentia, criminosos a legum sententiis ipsi vindicare non audeant, sed debita in eis, ut conpetit, censura exerceant. Qui thiuphadi tales eligant, quibus vicissitudines suas audiendas iniungant, ut ipsis absentibus illi causas et temperanter discutiant et iuste decernant," II. 1. 16. Back

46. "Si quis iudicem aut comitem aut vicarium comitis seu thiuphadum suspectos habere se dixerit," II. 1. 24; "dux, comes, vicarius, pacis asserto, thiuphadus, millenarius, quingentenarius, centenarius, defensor, numerarius," II. 1. 27; "ducibus vel comitibus, tiufadis atque vicariis," IV. 5. 6; "dux aut comes, thiufadus aut vicarius," IX. 2. 8; "ducibus, comitibus, thiufadis vacariis," ibid.; "admonitio ducis vel comitis, thiufadi, vicarii seu cuiuslibet curam agentis," IX. 2. 9; "dux, comes, thiufadus," ibid.; "dux, comes, tiuphadus, numerarius, villicus," Edictum Ervigii (683), MGh., Lex Visig., p. 479; "quod si ego Ermengaudus comes, aut vicharius, aut vilicus, aut tuifadus, aut aliqua persona venerit contra ista scriptura" (1029), Devic and Vaissete, op. cit., vol. V, col. 384. Back

47. MGH., Lex Visig., p. xxii. Back

48. "Bei den Subalternbeamten erscheint seit der zweiten Hälfte des vierten Jahrhunderts der Titel vir devotissimus, der auch in den Inschriften häufig, meist v. d. abgekürzt, auftritt. Dieser Titel, der das nahe Treuverhältniss zum aiser bezeichnet, ist daher vorzugsweise den zu ihm in näherem Verhältniss stehenden Soldaten, insbesondere den domestici und protectores und den militärisch organisierten agentes in rebus, sodann aber auch den kaiserlichen Kanzleibeamten beigelegt worden," O. Hirschfeld, Die Rangtitel der römischen Kaiserzeit, in Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 607 f. Back

49. "Sane duces omnes senioresque palatii ad huiusmodi sententiam obnoxii tenebuntur.....qui aut de bello refugiunt, aut in bellica profectione constituti extra senioris sui permissum alibi properasse reperiuntur," variant to IX. 2. 9; "quod serenissimo nostrae celsitudinis iussu a venerandis patribus et clarissimis palatii senioribus discreta titulorum exaratione est editum" (681), Concilium Toletanum XII, in MGH., Lex Visig., p. 476; "hoc solum vos, honorabiles Dei sacerdotes, cunctosque aulae regiae seniores.......adiuramus" (639), Conc. Tolet. XVI., ibid., p. 483. Back

50. "Ununquisque (arma) a seniore vel domino suo iniuncta........principi, duci, vel comiti suo presentare studeat," IX. 2. 9; "conventus sacerdotum atque etiam seniorum," XII. 1. 3. Back

51. MGH., Lex Visig., p. 485. Back

52. "Quicumque ex palatii nostri primatibus vel senioribus gentis Gotorum," III. 1. 5. Back

53. "Denuntiet aut sacerdoti aut comiti aut iudici aut senioribus loci aut etiam in conventu publico vicinorum," VIII. 5. 6. Back

54. MGH., Lex Visig., p. 485 f. Back

55. "Pincernae seu scalchi; scalcus, id est, architriclinus", Ducange, sub scalchus. Back

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