The Northern Way

Commentary To the Germanic Laws and Medieval Documents

Chapter I

(Page 1)


In the Theodosian Code there is mention of certain fines which are to be paid to the fiscus, and the formulae in which these fines occur run in stereotyped forms through the documents of the Middle Ages. The expression "Sinceritas tua reiectum quinque libras auri fisco utilitatibus cogat inferre," (1) to which the Interpretatio says "quinque libras fisco inferre cogatur," (2) has given rise to the formula cogente fisco. (3) Since it was a mere phrase without any very distinct meaning, it has been strengthened by the redundant coactus, (4) and for cogente fisco another equivalent phrase could be put, such as distringente, (5) indiscutienti, (6) egenti, (7) posito (8) fisco, which was still further expanded or corrupted into cum fisco, (9) una cum fisco, (10) servanti una cum fisco, (11) una cum cogente fisco. (12) Apparently the vague idea connected with such a formula was this: that one was to pay by compulsion of the fiscus, or, since the stipulatio duplae was divided up with the fiscus, that both the person in question and the fiscus were to be paid, as is frequently mentioned more specifically, (13) wherefore also the combination inter tibi et fisco is met with. (14)

In reality, however, all these combinations have resulted from another, socio fisco, which has been understood to mean "in company with the fiscus." But socio fisco has arisen from the employment of sociare in the Theodosian Code in the sense of "to appropriate," (15) which, in the combinations "fisci viribus, fisco sociare" has the distinct significance of "to confiscate." (16) In the Visigothic laws the expression "fisco, fisci partibus, fisci viribus sociare" is the usual technical term of confiscation, (17) which is also used in the other Germanic laws (18) and in Merovingian edicts. (19) From the formula distringente fisco, under the influence of sociare, has developed sociante fisco, (20) which has led to socio fisco with its many extravagancies (21)

The Frankish documents record the variant satiare, saziare from the seventh century on. (22) In the ninth century we hear of a formula of arrest prendere et saziare, (23) which, however, is already used in the Pactus Alamannorum in the form sisit et priserit, (24) where sisit may have been influenced by "exigere." (25) That this saziare was developed from the formula socio fisco becomes clear from a document at Carcasson in the year 936, where in sazina is identical with the in fisco of other documents. (26) In the Formulae the usual form of this word is sacire. It is employed to express the seizure of land by lawful process, where the alodial holding was not certain. (27) The physical seizure of the land was necessary, in order to make the title good, (28) and in an immunity to a cloister specific mention is made of the fact that it has the right of holding the land (sacire) against all persons. (29)

Before discussing the further history of socio fisco I will show what has become of the first part of the confiscation formula, of the word inferre. (30) In the Langobard laws there is frequent mention of a fine ferquidum, which is there glossed by "simile." If a person carries fire from the hearth, causing a conflagration, he pays the ferquidum, "damnum componat ferquido, id est similem." (31) Since the damage done by an accidental fire is assessed only to the amount of the property consumed, (32) while a wilful act of incendiarism is fined at its triple value, (33) this ferquidum must obviously be a double fine. The same is paid in case of a gift without launigild, of wilfully killing a dog or pig, or maiming a horse. (34) The old glossaries repeat the equation "ferquidum id est simile," (35) without giving any further explanation, and the modern authors similarly explain ferquidum to mean "of equal value." (36) But ferquidum had acquired no definite meaning, as will soon be seen, for it arose from a misunderstood and miswritten clause, and, although a confusion has arisen between it and simile "of equal value," the comparison of the various fires due to carelessness, accidence, or wilfulness shows conclusively that it originally meant "a double fine."

Since the Germanic laws have generally arisen from a literal interpretation of legal formulae, we must investigate the latter first. So far as I know, the oldest reference to this word in a document is of the year 739, where it says that if the seller cannot legally defend the purchaser, he is to pay double the amount of what the improved land would fetch "in ferquide loco." (37) Ferquide cannot mean "similar," because it is sheer nonsense to talk of a valuation in a similar place, even as many documents correctly speak of a valuation in the same place. (38) But since the puzzling formula made no sense to the notaries, it was entirely omitted (39) or corrupted to ferquidus et similis, (40) consimilis. (41) It is not difficult to trace the origin of this simili loco. In a document of the year 572 we have the sensible reference to the double fine in case of breach of contract and also, "simili modo," for any improvements on buildings since erected. (42) Apparently the Langobard documents had erroneously spoken of a valuation in a similar place, where formerly the reference was to a valuation in a similar manner in the same place. Curiously a Spanish document of the year 823 shows how such a mistake may have arisen, for here simili loco is used in the sense of "in the same manner." (43)

This in ferquidum (locum) is variously recorded, as infer quidem, (44) fer quidem, (45) infer quide, (46) infer quede, (47) in ferquidi, (48) in ferquede, (49) in ferquide (50) in ferquidem, (51) in ferquido, (52) where the very spelling makes the word suspicious. It is obvious from the Langobard documents, even as it was from their laws, that ferquidum originally refers to double damages, wherefore it occurs, like the simili of theyear 572, exclusively in the "stipulatio duplae," which guarantees the purchaser double damages in case of difficulties arising through the fault of the seller, (53) and is in the oldest document quoted by me correctly coupled with the "evictio," (54) even as it is in a Langobard contract of the year 725. (55)

In the Theodosian Code the verb inferre is always employed to express the payment of the fine to the fiscus, (56) and the Justinian Code similarly uses inferre fisco, aestimationem, argentum, pecuniam. (57) Wherever the Latin document is used, this inferre has been preserved in the "stipulatio duplae," but, as a rule, in a misunderstood and much corrupted form. It will suffice to make a brief survey of the oldest sources. The double damages are mentioned in a Saint Gall donation of about the year 700, (58) while in another, of the year 741, the melioration formula appears, exactly as in the Langobard documents. (59) Beginning with 751 inferre is used almost exclusively. (60) The same has happened at Cluny, but the meaning of inferre was so obscure to the notaries that they added the words "componere, persolvere." (61) The Formulae, too, contain the "stipulatio duplae," with or without inferre, but generally very corrupt. (62)

The fate of inferre in the Spanish peninsula is interesting. In the Visigothic formulae we still have the sensible use of inferre, as in the Roman laws, (63) but in the later Spanish-Portuguese period the notaries no longer knew what to make of it. While the Spanish documents generally employ it correctly, (64) the Portuguese use what appears to be a totally inexplicable doubling infer vel inferus, (65) which in reality has arisen out of two persons of the verb, such as inferat vel inferamus, in a desire to agree, as in the first quotation, both with "aliquis homo" and with "nos." This infera has been in Portuguese and Spanish understood to mean "as far as," giving rise to ferre in "reach as far," (66) usque fer in, fer in "up to." (67)

The Langobard formula infer quidem is based either on the preceding Ostrogothic or on the borrowed Visigothic documents. That such is the case is proved by the fact that the Lucca documents frequently have the same repetition as the Spanish ones, (68) which is unprecedented outside of the older Gothic countries. It is, therefore, necessary to assume that infer quidem loco, which is the most common formula, must stand for "infer quid in eo loco (simili modo sub extimatione quale tunc fueret unde agitur)," or a similar phrase.

I will now show that socio fisco has given rise to the Goths sagio, saio and a number of similar important derivations. Mommsen, who has so often pointed out in general outlines the Roman origin of Ostrogothic institutions, has shown that the saio is the Gothic equivalent for the Roman agens in rebus, that is, that he is the executive officer carrying out the decrees of his superior among the Goths as well as among the Romans. (69) Cassiodorus once couples a saio, who is always a Goth, with a Roman apparitor (70) and a Roman comitiacus, (71) and Mommsen has shown that a comitiacus, comitianus, ducicus, or ducianus was an apparitor, hence officially identical with the saio. (72) Cassiodorus correctly says of a saio that he is the executor of the royal will, (73) but the word executor is also applied to a Roman, (74) who is a comes, (75) but, to judge from his title, devotio tua, and the mission on which he is sent, filled the duty generally exacted from a saio. Devotio tua is applied only to an apparitor, exsecutor, or saio, (76) while vir devotus is equally said of a comitiacus or comitianus. (77) It is, therefore, clear that devotio tua was the usual honorific title of an executive officer. It was already in use in the fourth century in regard to a prefect (78) and some other officer, (79) and devotus was in the Theodosian Code frequently employed to designate a soldier who paid his taxes promptly, so that it nearly corresponded to the term fidelis, with which we shall meet later on. It is, then, obvious that the saio was considered as the trusted servant of the king or judge, (80) whose chief duty consists in "taking away, confiscating" in the name of the judicial authority, as is specifically mentioned in the ancient Gaudenzian fragment of the Visigothic laws. (81) Hence the extended formula "socio fisco coactus exsolvat," which we have so frequently met, was distinctly understood to mean, "let him pay, having been compelled by the socio fisci," that is, this socio produced the Gothic sagio, saio, "confiscator."

From this sagio, saio, whose original form was sacio, as preserved in Merovingian sacibaro, is derived the Spanish sacar "to take away by force, confiscate," (82) hence, "to take away from the country, export." (83) Similar meanings have developed for the word in Portugal, where it means "to take away, confiscate," (84) hence, "to collect the fine," wherefore sacator is the "collector of fines," that is, almost identical with saio. (85) In modern Spanish and Portuguese la saca is "export."

A passage in Ebn Khaldun shows that the custom of surrounding the sovereign with a bodyguard of saiones was imitated from the Spaniards, for it was first practiced by the Mowahhids of Spain, and the very name applied to such a bodyguard, sâqah, shows its derivation from sagio, sacare. (86) In the tenth century Arab. sâqah had the meaning of "rear guard." That it meant "a rear guard acting as a protection" is evident from Greek saka, which was in that century borrowed from the Arabs. (87) This saka was charged with the care of the sick and the feeble and their belongings, (88) wherefore it naturally carried off all the plunder, as is shown from the quotations in the Romance languages and from the use of saccomannus "plunderer," saccomannum "plunder" in Italian documents. (89) From the formula "ponere ad saccomanum" has arisen the Spanish phrase "dar saco mano," "to plunder," while Italian saccardo, saccheggiare, French saccager, have developed from the shorter saccum "plunder." But this saccomannus, which in the form saccomanno is common in Lombardy, is unquestionably of Langobard origin, even as it occurs as sagibaro in the Salic laws, and as sagibaro and sagemannus in the Anglo-Saxon laws. It does not appear clearly from the Salic law what the sagibaro was, but he is called a "puer regius," that is, "servant or soldier of the king," (90) hence he belongs in the same category as the antrustio. (91) One law, which is very obscure in language, says that there cannot be more than three of them at one malloberg, and that they are in some way connected with the collection of money, (92) hence it is obvious that they are in the same category with the thungini. This is proved conclusively from the Anglo-Saxon law where a sagibaro is considered as of equal rank with an alderman and is in Anglo-Saxon called "gethungen," (93) which is in complete agreement with the Pithoean gloss "sacebarone: dicuntur quasi senatores." I shall show further on that certain cases at law could not be introduced by the plaintiff in person, but only through the thunginus or sacibaro, hence sacibaro, sacimannus came to mean, not only "collector of money, confiscator," but also "spokesman, accuser," (94) and hence the Germanic languages, with the exception of the Gothic, have developed from this sagi- the root sag- "speak." That it originally meant "to speak for the plaintiff, accuse" is proved by the Slavic languages where sok is "accuser," while in Russian it means "accuser, spy, denunciator" and the verb socit' means "to find out, hunt up, chase," even as Lithuanian sakiti " to hunt," Finnish sakka "speech, announcement," OIrish saig- "tendere, petere, adire" are derived from this Germanic sag- "to prosecute at court."


1. I. 9. 1. Similarly I. 11. 1, VI. 28, 4, VI. 30. 10, IX. 17. 4, IX. 21. 4, XIV. 3. 20. Back

2. Ibid., and II. 23. Back

3. The ablative absolute is already to be found in Cod. Theod. III. 1: "fisco vindicante." Back

4. "Deinde cogente fisco auri libras 15. argenti pondera 30. coactus exsolvant" (858), Ducange, sub fiscus. Back

5. "Qui hoc agere temptaverit, inferat cum distringente fisco argenti pondera v, aurique libram unam coactus exsolvat" (813), Devic and Vaissete, Histoire de Languedoc, vol. II, Preuves, col. 79. Back

6. "Indiscutieni fisco multa conponat" (764), Urkundenbuch der Abtei Sanct Gallen, Zürich 1863, vol. I, p. 43, and very often. "Inferat partibus vestris.....fisco discutiente multa conponat" (794), Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des chartes, sér. 2, vol. III, p. 416. Back

7. "Duplex satisfactione fisco egenti exsolvat" (627), Bibl. d. l'Ec. des chartes, vol. VI, p. 52. Back

8. "Et insuper posito fisco....coactus exsolvat," MGH., Formulae, p. 107. Back

9. "Inferat vobis cum fisco auri libras duas," Doniol, Cartulaire de Brioude, p. 107. Back

10. "Qui hoc egerit aut quicumque tentaverit una cum fisco auri libram unam persolvat," ibid., p. 226. Back

11. "Inferat parte statuta servanti una cum fisco" (626), Bibl. d. l'Ec. des chartes, vol. LI, p. 49. Back

12. "Una cum cogente fisco multa conponat" (794), ibid., sér. 2, vol. III, p. 418, "inferamus tibi cum cogenti fisco duplum," MGH., Formulae, pp. 89, 90. Back

13. "Medietate palacio nostro, et medietate predictae congregationi" (818), Historiae Patriae Monumenta, vol. XIII, col. 176. Back

14. "Inferit inter tibi et fisco soledus tantus vobis conponat," MGH., Formulae, p. 5: "inferat inter tibi et fisco soledus tantus, vobis conponit," ibid., p. 6; "inferit inter tibi et fisco......exsolvat," ibid., p. 11; "inferit inter vobis et fisco, conponere debiat," ibid., pp. 13, 23, etc. Back

15. "Si quis libertum emere ut servum, vel qualibet manumissione donatum inquietare voluerit, non solum bona sua largitionibus nostris iussimus sociari," App. XIX. Back

16. "Fundum ipsum.....fisci viribus sociandum" (403), VII. 18. 12; "fisco eius omne patrimonium sociari decernimus" (446), IX. 26. 4; "alioquin patrimonio suo fisco sociato" (401), IX. 42. 18; "proprietate privetur, ea videlicet fiscalibus calculis socianda" (404), X. 22. 5. Back

17. "Omnen vero substantiam suam heredibus occisi iuxta legis superioris ordinem iubemus addici, aut etiam fisco....sociari," VI. 5. 18; "quisquis de Iudeis sub nomine proprietatis fraudulenta suggestione aliquid a precessoribus nostris visus est promeruisse....fisco nostro faciatis sociari," XII. 2. 13; "facultas predictorum omnimoda.....fisco nostro sociata deserviat," XII. 3. 8; "medietatem rerum suarum fisco sociandum amittant"; XII. 3. 12, 13, and 17; "decimam partem rei sue fisci partibus sociandam amittat," XII. 1. 3 and Conc. Tolet. XII; "totum fisci erit viribus sociandum," XII. 2. 18; "res eius fisci viribus sociande sunt," XII. 3. 4. Back

18. "Alia medietas propter admissam violentiam fisci viribus societur," Lex Burgund., lex romana, VIII; "et res eius in fisco socientur," Leg. Langob., Lib. Pap., V ff. Back

19. "Facultates eorum propinquis haeredibus socientur" (614), Bouquet, Recueil des historiens des Gaules, vol. IV, p. 119. Back

20. "Sociante fisco multa conponat" (745), Urkb. d. Abtei Sanct Gallen, vol. I, p. 13; "una cum sociante fisco.....coactus exsolvat" (777), J. Tardif, Monuments historiques, Paris 1866, p. 62; "inferat ad ipsum sanctum locum heredum meam sociantem fisco auri libras quinquaginta" (739), C. Cipolla, Monumenta novaliciensia vetustiora, Roma 1898, Vol. I, p. 37. Back

21. "Inferat socio fisco auri liberas viginti" (671), Tardif, op. cit., p. 16; "inter te et socium fisco...conponat" (769), ibid., p. 55; "sotio fisco...coactus exsolvat" (833), Gallia christiana, vol. II, Instrumenta, col. 165; "una cum socio fisco...quoactus exsolvat" (691), Tardif, op. cit., p. 25; "inferat tibi una cum sotio fisco auri untias tantas esse multando," MGH., Formulae, p. 186; "tunc inferat tibi una cum sotio fisco duplum tantum," ibid.; "inferat ei, cui litem intulerit, ista tota servante, una cum socio fisco untias tantas esse multando," ibid., p. 188; "una cum socio fisco distringente....coactus exsolvat" (766), Tardif, op. cit., p. 49; "una cum distringentibus sociis fisci" (884), Regesto di Farfa, vol. III, p. 34. Back

22. "Si fuerit de facultate latronis....satiatur," Bouquet, Recueil, vol. IV, p. 265; "una cum satio fisco" (833), ch. A. Trémault, Cartulaire de Marmoutier, Paris, Vendôme 1893, p. 276. Back

23. "Ipsius hominis Rothberti preserunt et saziaverunt malo ordine et contra legem, unde legem subire et incurrere debent" (845), B. Guérard, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint Victor de Marseille, vol. I, p. 33. Back

24. "Si quis alterius ingenuam de crimina sea stria aut herbaria sisit et eam priserit," Frag. II. 33, in MHG., Leg. Alaman., p. 23. Back

25. "Multam iubemus exigere," Leg. Burgund, LXXVI. 1; "nec pulveraticum prendere nec exigere" (795), Cartulaire général de Paris, vol. I, p. 36. Back

26. "In tali conventu, dum ego Dodolinus vixero, teneam et possideam ista vinea ad usus fructuum per beneficium nostri Salvatoris et Sancti Nazarii cujus hereditas est, et accipiant in sazina sanctus Salvator per singulos annos solidos tres," Devic et Vaissete, op. cit., vol. V, col. 170. Back

27. "Repetebat adversus cum, dum diceret, eo quod rem suam in loco nuncupante illo, in pago illo, in centena illa, quam de parte genetoris sui illius legibus obtingebat conscriptas, ille predictam rem superius nominatam male ordine suprasedebat vel retenebat iniuste; sed ipse ille presens adherat. Interrogatum fuit ipsi illo ab ipsis viris quid contra haec dicere vellebat, per quem sibi de iam dicta re sacibat vel inantea sacire vellebat; sed ipse de presente taliter debit ei in responsis, quod ante hos annos genitor suos nomine illo ex alode conscriptam superius nominatam ei dimisisset. Dum taliter agitur, iudicatum fuit ipsi illo, ut apud duodecim homines suos consimiles in basilica sancti illius hoc coniuraret vel predictam rem sacire deberet. Sed veniens predictus ille ad eum placitum in noctis institutis, ingressus est in basilica illa, manu missa super sacrum et sanctum altare, coram ipsis missis vel racineburgis, quicquid indicatum fuit vel per suum fisticum habuit aframitum, hoc coniuravit vel legibus sacibat," MGH., Formulae, p. 251. Back

28. "Dum pro malorum hominum consilium, quod non debueram, de terra vestra in loco nuncupante illo, quem excolere videor, revellare conavi et ipsa terra ad proprietate sacire volui et non potui, quod nec ratio prestetit, et vos vel agentes vestri eam ad parte vestra revocastis vel nobis exinde eiecistis," ibid., p. 100. Back

29. "Licentiam habeat.....per annis contra quemcumque saciendi," ibid., p. 66. Back

30. Based on my discussion in the Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, 1913, p. 580 ff. Back

31. Rothar 147. Back

32. "Caput tantum conponat," ibid., 148. Back

33. "In treblum eum restituat sub stimationem rei cum omnia, quae intus cremata sunt," ibid., 149. Back

34. Rothar 186, 330, 337, 349 (Liutp. 151). Back

35. MGH., Leg., vol. IV, pp. 651, 653. Back

36. F. Dahn, Die Könige der Germanen, Leipzig 1909, vol. XII, p. 148. Back

37. "Si minime defensare non potuero ego Petru, aut mei heredis tibi qui supra Aloin, aut tuis reprometto adque spondeo me esse componiturum in duplu meliorata terrula, de quo agitur sub stemationem in ferquede loco," Troya, Cod. dip. Langob., vol. III, p. 650. Back

38. "Omnia et in omnibus inintegro ab omni homine defensare quod si defendere minime potu ....tunc sit conponituris ssto gaiduald vel ad eius hhd. aut cui gaiduald ipsum loc [um reliquerit] alium talem locum qualiter superius legitur sub extimatione intra ipso loco" (726), Arch. stor. ital., ser. III, vol. XVII, p. 237; "in dupplo res meliorata, de quod agitor in eodem loco" (740), Troya, op. cit., Vol. III, p. 696; "in duplo meliorata qualem tunc fuerit in eodem loco" (761), ibid., vol. V, p. 107; "in duplo meliorata in ipso loco qualis tunc fuerit" (762), ibid., p. 174; "tunc componat pars parti....infra ipso dublo" (771), Cod. dip. Langob., col. 84 f.; "tunc omnia dublo componamus in ipso loco sub extimatione" (785), ibid., col. 114; "conponamus, qualiter fuerit meliorata, ego et mei heredes tibi et heredibus tuis in suprascripto loco" (792), ibid., col. 125. Back

39. "In duplum rebus ipsius melioratis, sicut pro tempore fuerint sub estimationem restituamus" (769), Cod. dip. Langob., col. 73; "promitto me vobis componere suprascriptos duodecentos iuges talis et alios talis una quoque inibi a vobis edificavit, aut melioratione fuerit in duplo" (772), ibid., col. 88 f.; "ut in dublum restituat rem melioratam" (776), ibid., col. 106, etc. Back

40. "Fer quidum terra et simile in eodem locum bobis conponere debemus" (875), Cod. cav., vol. I, p. 103; "et ferquidum et simile rebus in eodem loco bobis conponere spondimus" (877), ibid., p. 104; "in duplo et alia tale casa et quantu aput vos meliorata fueru sup iu[sta esti]mazione in ferquide et in consimile loca" (1099), ibid., p. 49. Back

41. "Sub estimatione consimili loco" (753), Cod. dip. Langob., col. 32; "in consimiles locas" (774), ibid., col. 104; "in consimile loco," (936), Muratori, Antiq., vol. II, col. 1136, (1014), ibid., vol. I, p. 410, (1091), ibid., p. 420; "in loco consimili" (1175), Camera, Storia ...di Amalfi, vol. I, p. 361. Back

42. "Quod.....evictum ablatumve quid fuerit tunc quanti ea res erit quae evicta fuerit duplum pretium sstum quinque solidorum a sso venditore & ab ejusque hhbs. & successoribus eidem conparatori ss. ejusque hhbus & successoribus cogantur inferre sed & res quoque meliorate instructae aedificateque taxatione habita simili modo omnia duplariae rei se qs. venditor hhdesque suos reddere pollicetur," Marini, I papiri diplomatici, p. 184. Back

43. "Reddat in quadruplum, et simili loco quantum inquietaverit Ovetensi Ecclesiae et cultoribus ejus, et insuper solvat auri talenta duo," España sagrada, vol. XXXVII, p. 322. Back

44. "Conponamus duplu casa et res in melioratu, unde agitur, infer quidem locu sum estimationum qualis tunc fuerit" (759), Troya, op. cit., vol. V, p. 56, and again pp. 279, 466, 542, 551, 556, 643, 704; vol. IV, p. 419 (752) infer quidem loco cum quid, aut qualis tunc fuerit" (769), Mem. e doc. ...d. duc. d. Lucca, vol. IV, p. 116, and similarly pp. 135, 136, 138, 150, 167, 189; vol. IV, p. 49; vol. V; pp. 37 (759), 44, 52, 64. Back

45. Troya, op cit., vol. V, p. 654; Mem. e doc....d. Lucca, vol. IV, pp. 19 (753), 28; vol. V, p. 29. Back

46. Troya, op. cit., vol. v, pp. 58 (759), 333; Mem. e doc. d. Lucca, vol. IV, pp. 140 (779), 183; vol. V, pp. 26 (747), 38, 54. Back

47. Troya, op. cit., vol. IV, p. 429 (752), vol. V, p. 81; Mem. e doc....d. Lucca, vol. IV, pp. 79 (744), 92. Back

48. Troya, op. cit., vol. V, p. 177: "in ferquidi loco et in ipso praedicto casale." Back

49. Ibid., vol. III, p. 650 (739). Back

50. Muratori, Antiq., vol. III, col. 1014 (783); ibid., col. 1142 (1126). Back

51. Ibid., vol. V, col. 412 (793); vol. III, col. 1062 (964), col. 1086 (1058). Back

52. Ibid., vol. V, col. 1912 (752); vol. III, col. 1108 (1109), and again cols. 1152, 1154, 1158, 1169, 1170. Back

53. For the "stipulatio duplae" read A. Bechmann, Geschichte des Kaufs im römischen Recht, Erlangen 1876, p. 375 ff. Back

54. The citations in Roman law referring to this may be found in B. Brisson, De formulis et solennibus populi romani verbis libri viii, Halae et Lipsiae 1731, p. 483. Back

55. "Et si pulsatus aut aevectus fuerit.....doblus solidos emptori suo restituat," Cod. dip. Langob., col. 16. Back

56. See notes on p. 1. Back

57. B. Brisson, De verborum quae ad jus pertinent significatione libri xix, Lipsiae 1721, p. 457. Back

58. "Si ego ipse aut ullus de heredis meos aut ulla opposita persona, qui contra hanc donationem istam agerit aut infrangere voluerit, inprimis iram Dei incurrat et tublum conponat," H. Wartmann, Urkundenbuch der Abtei Sanct Gallen, vol. I, p. 2. Back

59. "Duplum tantum, quanta ipsa res meliorata valuerit, eis coactus exsolvat," ibid., p. 7. Back

60. "Qui contra hanc firmitate ita venire timtaverit, inferat contra ipsus sanctus auro libra una," ibid., p. 17; "qui contra hanc epistola donationis ambolale presumserit, inferat ad ipso loco sancto dubla repeticione" (752), ibid., p. 18; "inferat ad ipso loco sancto dubla repeticione" (752), ibid., p. 18; "inferat parte custodiente dobla repeticione," ibid., pp. 22, 23, 32, 37, et passim. Back

61. "Inferamus vobis vestrisque eredibus, una cum tercio fisco auri uncia una componat" (870), A. Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny, Paris 1876, vol. I, p. 16; "inferat nobis una cum socio auro uncias IIII componat" (873), ibid., p. 23; "tunc inferamus nos vobis uno cum tercio fisco auri uncia I componat" (874), ibid., p. 24; "inferamus tibi cum tercia fisco auria libera persolvat" (874), ibid., p. 25, et passim. Back

62. See notes on p. 3. Back

63. "Et insuper inferat vobis auri libras tantas," MGH., Formulae, p. 577. Back

64. "Inferat in cauto" (899), Berganza, Antigüedades de España, p. 372; "conferat tibi quidquid petierit in dupplo" (912), ibid., p. 373; "conferat in cauto" (914) ibid., p. 374. Back

65. "Si quis tamen quo fieri non credimus aliquis homo uenerit uel uenerimus contra hac cartula inrumpendum de generis nostri uel de extraneis que in concilio post parte uestra deuindicare non potuerimus infer uel inferus quomodo pariemus uobis illa ecclesia et illa hereditate duplata uel triplata quantum ad uobis fuerit meliorata" (940), PMH., Dip. et chart., p. 31; "tunc infera uel infera pars nostra partique vestra" (949), ibid., p. 34; "tunc infera uel ininfera pars nostra partique uestra" (952), ibid., p. 38; "infera uel infera parie uobis" (964), ibid., p. 54; "infera uel infra pars nostra" (964), ibid., pp. 56, 57; "inferam uel inferam pars nostra" (971); ibid., p. 65; "infera uel infera pariemus uobis" (984), ibid., p. 89; "inferat uel infera pars mea" (985), ibid., p. 94; "infra uel infra pars nostra" (1044), ibid., p. 203. Back

66. "Ad illum portum de Porrarium, et feret in illum riuolum de conclude per illum riuolum, descendit cum ille per Vaor, et idem per ripas et pergit per terminos de Populeros et feret in riuolum chane....usque feret, et item per illum portum de feret in illa semita antiqua ad illas veredas de Mamonela, et pergit per illa vereda antiqua" (791), Fray Antonio de Yepes, Coronica general de la orden de San Benito, Patriarca de Religiosos, 1609-1621, vol. IV, p. 448b "et pergit usque ad montem et ferit in illa mamola" (957), PMH., Dip. et chart., p. 42. Back

67. "Fer in illa fonte" (873), PMH., Dip. et chart., p. 1; "et inde ad ille sumio usque fer ad illa uia per illa fonte usque fer in illo fer in illo per illos collos ad illa petragosa usque fer in illo forno" (907), ibid., p. 10; "et fere in suari" (960), ibid., p. 50; "per riuulo homine et fere in suari....usque fere in inde ad fonte coua et fere in illo vallo" (960), ibid., p. 51; "usque fere in fere super canale" (961), ibid., p. 52. Back

68. "Ispondimus vobis componere ipsa suprascripta sala, vel res, quos tibi dedi in duplum ferquidem, et infer quidem loco sub extimationem quale tunc fueret unde agitur" (773), Mem. e doc...d. Lucca, vol. IV, p. 131; "ipsa re dupla, fer quidem, infer quide loco, sub extimatione cum quo, aut qualis tunc fuerint" (774), ibid., p. 132; "in tripum, fer quide, et in ferquide loco" (782), ibid., p. 143; "in duplum, fer quidem, et infer quidem" (779), ibid., vol. V, pp. 100. 101. Back

69. "Theoderich hat aber den römischen agens in rebus nicht bloss sich angeeignet, sondern die Institution auch auf die Gothen erstreckt. Der comitiacus seiner Erlasse zwar ist immer ein Römer, aber zuweilen daneben und dann an erster Stelle, häufiger allein tritt ein anderer Subalternbeamter auf, gothisch bezeichnet als saio und ohne Ausnahme gothischer Nationalität. Welche germanische Institution dabei zu Grunde liegt, muss dahingestellt bleiben; wie uns dieser Saio entgegentritt, ist er einfach der agens in rebus gegenüber den Unterthanen gothischen Rechts. Wie die Soldateneigenschaft bei dem agens in rebus schon durch die Nationalität ausgeschlossen wird, so kommt sie auch dem Saio nicht zu; aber der Sache nach tritt der agens wesentlich als Soldat auf und dasselbe gilt ebenso sehr, wenn nicht noch in höherem Grade von dem Saio. Auch seine Thätigkeit besteht in der Uebermittelung der königlichen Befehle jeglichen Inhalts an den oder die davon betroffenen Personen und der Ueberwachung ihrer Ausführung; bezeichnend für seine Stellung ist es, dass er da verwendet wird, wo die Execution der Lokalbehörden nicht ausreicht und dass bei Ladungen vor Gericht ihm der doppelte Betrag dessen zukommt, was nach der von Theoderich aufgestellten Taxe dem Executor der Provinzialbehörde an Sporteln zu zahlen ist. Mit dem Nebeneinanderstehen des agens in rebus und des saio wird zusammenhängen, dass allgemeine jurisdictionelle Anzeigen und Anordnungen, zum Beispiel die Anzeige der Uebernahme einer Person in die spezielle königliche Tuition und die Anweisung zur Ergreifung flüchtiger Verbrecher regelmässig an die die römischen Behörden gerichtet wurden. Für die Gesammtauffassung der germanischen Reichsverweserschaft ist das Institut dieser saiones in hohem Grade belehrend. Wer sich dem Augenschein nicht verschliesst, muss erkennen, dass so, wie Theoderich es gestaltet hat, es ebenso der praktische Ausdruck der personellen Omnipotenz des Herrschers ist wie das der agentes in rebus und also das Regiment Theoderichs über die Gothen eben dasselbe war, welches der Kaiser des Westreichs über die in seinem Dienst stehenden Ausländer übte oder doch üben sollte," Ostgothische Studien, in Neues Archiv, vol. XIV, p. 472 ff. Back

70. "Triwilae saioni et Ferrocincto apparitori," III. 20. Back

71. "Dumerit saioni et Florentiano uiro devoto comitiano," VIII. 27. Back

72. Variae, p. 470. Back

73. "Iussionis nostrae, cuius executor esse debuit," VII. 42; "in executore illud est pessimum, si iudicis relinquat arbitrium," XII. 3. Back

74. I. 8. Back

75. IV. 5. Back

76. II. 21, I. 8, IV. 47, V. 10, V. 27, XII. 3. Back

77. II. 10, VIII. 27. Back

78. Cod. Theod., VII. 20. 1 (318). Back

79. Ibid., VII. 22. 2. (326). Back

80. "Non sayonis de rege ingressio" (955), T. Muñoz y Romero, Coleccion de fueros municipales, p. 31. Back

81. "Qui ad iudicium iudicatum non reddiderit debitum et contempserit in duobus mensibus, interpellet creditor regem et iudicem, qui transmittat sagionem cum ipso, et tollat sagio ille de substantia eius, quod ipsum debitum possit valere, quantum creditori suo restituere iussus fuerat, et reddat creditori," MGH., Lex Visig., p. 470. Back

82. "Villano pro pignos sacare per forcia" (955), Muñoz y Romero, Coleccion de fueros, p. 31; "uilla de Tauroni medietatem, quomodo illa saccauimus pro judicato de filios de Froila Osorize" (988), España sagrada, vol. XL, p. 406; "et post ea uenit domino açenare deosane et uoluit illa forçare de tota omnia sua ereditate pro non potuit illa ereditate sakare" (1044), Coleccion de documentos para el estudio de la historia de Aragon, Zaragoza [1904], vol. I, p. 58; "si tale homine exierit de illa gente de ista domina que ad regi uoleant sakare de ista binea quod istos fidiatores iam dictos ponant ad regi in alio loco" (1061), ibid., p. 170; "abuerunt contemtione vicinos de votaia cum abbate domno blasco, dicentes quod partem aberent in supradicto monte et per lege et iudicio de rege domno ranimiro et de suos barones sakavit eos exinde abbate domno blasco," ibid., p. 193; "quod nullus homo non sacet vos inde de illas hereditates" (1147), España sagrada, vol. XXXV, p. 416; "et fuit ipso barrio sakato a parte regalengo" (1071), Indice de los documentos del monasterio de Sahagun, de la Orden de San Benito, Madrid 1874, p. 17; "et saco nobis de istas hereditates" (1131), ibid., p. 26; "et saquo inde saion et merinus et homicido et roxum" (1137), ibid., p. 28. Back

83. "Estes ommes sobre dichos que son puestos en estos puertos cuenten todas las mercadurias que quisieren por y sacar....Sy algund mercadero o otro amme fuere fallado en todos mios rreynos sacando ninguno auer por mar nin por tierra delos que yo defiendo, por ninguna parte fuera delos rreynos" (1268), Cortes de los antiguos reinos de Leon y de Castilla, Madrid 1861, vol. I, p. 75. Back

84. "Et damus uobis illos in oferzionem pro que nobis sacastis linpio de conzelio et sano pro parte de illo iudizio que noscum abuit aderedo" (991), PMH., Dip. et chart., p. 99; "et si homo intrauerit in casa aliena per forcia quantum inde saccauerit duplet et si nullam causam saccauerit quinque solidos ad palacium" (11. cent.), ibid., Leg. et consuet., vol. I, p. 346; "qvi boues eiecerit de ero ubi ararent aut saccauerit la clauila aut desturbauerit quod non aren" (12. cent.), ibid., p. 192. Back

85. "Et quicumque contra decretum uel decreta mea que ibi sunt scripta uendiderit uel momparauerit...pectet duplatum illud quod magis uendiderit quam positum est in decreto. Et ad istos incautos saquandos mitto hominem meum Martinum Pelagii quod saquet eos ut dictum est per se uel per alios sacatores cum meis scribanis de uillis quos ipse ponere uoluerit," ibid., p. 753. Back

86. "(Les Mowahhids et les souverains de la famille de Zénata) restreignirent l'usage des drapeaux et des tymbales au sultan, et les interdirent à tous ses lieutenants: ils en firent le cortége spécial qui devoit accompagner le sultan quand il marchoit, et qu' on designoit sous le nom de saka. Le nombre en fut plus ou moins grand, suivant les usages particuliers adoptés par chaque dynastie: les uns se bornoient à sept, comme à un nombre qui porte bonheur; tel étoit l'usage des Mowahhids, et de la famille des Bénou' lahmar, en Espagne," S. de Sacy, Chrestomathie arabe, Paris 1826, vol. II, p. 266. Back

87. O de arcwn twn eterwn ex twn opisqiwn, twn kai saka kaloumenwn andras kai autoj aforisaj ekaton meq hgemonoj tinoj empeirou, eatw apo diasthmatoj peripatein ek twn opisqen ena kai autoi kataskopwsi tou mh kata nwton toutoij adokhtwj epelqein touj polemious. Peri katastasewj aplhktou, in R. Vari, Incerti scriptoris byzantini saeculi X, Liber de re militari, Lipsiae 1901, in Index sub saka. Back

88. Thn de loiphn didonai toij tou saka, opwj ekeinoi touj plhgatouj touj de ta eautwn apolwlekotaj aloga kai mh dunamenouj pezeusai ekeinouj te autouj di autwn bastazwsi kai ton forton autwn. ibid. Back

89. "Volebant et iam incoeperant saccomanare civitatem," Muratori, Scriptores, vol. XII, col. 481; "una nocte pernoctaverunt, multas pulchras domos et palatia cum aedificiis saccomannando et comburendo," ibid., vol. XVI, col. 328; "nec de saccomanno, tamquam nobilissimus stirpe, curabat," ibid., col. 348; "et ipsam Placentiam vi acceperunt post obsidionem 32. dierum, et ut asseritur ipsam ad saccomannum posuerunt," ibid., vol. XI, col. 279; "deinde iverunt versus Pisaurum et quatuor castra posuerunt ad depraedationem seu ad saccomanum," ibid., vol. XIX, col. 894; "item, quia domum praefati dom. Cardinalis postea pergentes, Sanctitatis vestrae ultra omnem modestiam, posita fuit ad saccamannum in Luca," Martène & Durand, Thesaurus novus anecdotorum, vol. II, col. 1396. Back

90. "Si quis sacebarone qui puer regius fuit occiderit," LIV. 2. Back

91. "Qui antrusionem quo puer regius est occiserit," Recap. B. 32. Back

92. "Sacibaronis vero in singulis mallibergis plus quam tres non debent esse, et si de causas de quod aliquid eis solvuntur, factum dixerint, hoc ad grafionem non requiratur unde ille securitatem fecerit," LIV, 4. Back

93. "Si quis in domo aldermanni uel alterius sagibaronis pugnet, gif hwa on ealdormonnes huse gefeohte oðe on oðres geðungenes witan," Ine 6. 2. Back

94. "In causis ubi iudex fiscalis aliquem inplacitet de socna sua sine alio accusatore, sine sagemanno, sine inuestitura," Leg. Henrici 63. 1; "non attraho mihi hoc N pro amicitia uel inimicitia uel pro iniusto lucro, nec uerius inde scio, quam mihi sagemannus meus dixit," Oath formula 4. Back

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