The Northern Way



1. Most important sources: H. F. Heilberg, Jysk ordbog: ”Lokkemand” and ”Jakob Löj”. Dansk folkemindesamling 1906, 29b: ”Lokke”.

2. DFS 1904, 42, 286.

3. Thorlacius, Antiqu. boreales VII 43: in Danis a rusticis audivi, phænomenon. quo solis radii per nubium interstitia tuborum instar in terram vel mare descendunt, vocari Locke dricker vand.
Thorlacius was principal in Kolding 1769 – 77, and in Copenhagen 1777 – 1803.

4. P. Syv, ”Paralipomena ex proverbiis” (page 2 and 4) in his collections of proverbs, now on the University Library. (Rostgård 48 8). A couple of these are inaccurately printed at R. Nyerup, “P. Syvs kærnefulde ordsprog, p. lxxviii.

5. In Sevel parish of Ginding shire: ”æ bjærremand sår havre” (the hill-man sows oat). In Törring near Holsterbro transferred to the croaking of the frogs: “æ frøer sår havre” (the frogs sow oat).

6. Jensen- Tusch, Nordiske plantenavne (Vends., referring to Lyngbye). Also in Molbech, Diallex. 331 (without location, and without any special pronunciation). Finn Magnusen, Mytologiæ lexicon (1828) 232 (Northern Jutland), referring to H. C. Lyngbye, who grew up in Hellum shire near Ålborg. Also Lovise Hansen knows “Lokkemanshavre” from Vendsyssel, as an art of moss with tiny and fine flowers.

7. Rietz, Diallex. 512. Lundgren, Språkliga intyg om hednisk gudetro 80. Is already mentioned by Linné.

8. Jensen.Tusch 32. 288. DgF IV 578. Rietz, Diallex. 408 (comp. Lundgren, Språkl. intyg). Dybeck, Runa 1847, 30

9. Dybeck, Runa 1847, 30

10. Jensen-Tusch 10, 175. ”Loengæs” (Samsø) is probably a popular etymological conversion with connection to “lodde” (the fish capelin) if anything.

11. E. T. Kristensen, Jyske folkeminder, IX 76.

12. Feilb. II 445. – Let me by the way stamp out the continual misconception, that Tor-month (and this verse) has anything to do with the deity Thor. It has to, despite the displacement in time, be identical to the Old Norse word “Þorri”. The verse is most certainly referring to this verse, as the sister month “Gói” is placed next to it (“Torre med sit skjeg lokke bådna onne veg, Goi med sit skinn jage bodna inn”) (Torre with his beard, entice the children outside, Goi with his skin, chases the children (back) inside). Like this, it has been reported to me from Helleland in Stavanger County by Professor Magnus Olsen.

13. These can, in the border-regions between”oat-seed” and ”goats”, sometimes be transferred to the ”oat-seed”.

14. From the manuscript (Danmarks gamle folkeviser, no 1 Ab) it has later been adopted to Vendel’s edition (Locke Leiemand) and from there to the younger Jutlandian tradition (Lokki Læjermand, Lok å Liremand, DgF IV 581). It is probably also from this tradition that “lejodrengen” in the Swedish version of the ballad derives.

15. DgF IV 578

16. Lokje: Aasen, Norsk ordbog (from Rauland). Also Faye, Norske folkesagn 2:6. - Vetti: Skard, Gamalt fraa Sætesdal, II (1908) 27

17. Eiler Sundt, Folkevennen, XI (1861) 393.

18. See reference in Feilb., Ordbog: mus.

19. Folkevennen XI (1861) 393 (Storaker, Overtro og sagn i Lister og Mandals amt).

20. Wille, Optegnelser om Telemarken (særtr. af n. Hist. Tidsskr. 2 R. III) p. 43.

21. Ross, Norsk ordbog 486; with this marginal note: ”as (because) Wille does not hear the great difference between o and aa, it can be Lokje.”

22. Faye, Norske folkesagn, 2. udg. 1844, p. 5

23. The glossary of Thottske samling 1506 vol.: 4: voorkloor. By courtesy assistant professor Hannaas, who also has provided me with several other facts for this research.

24. [Translator’s note]: ”Dragedukke” is described like this in Salmonsens konversationsleksikon, Anden Udgave VI:
Dragedukke (Dragon doll)
In folklore: A human like figure (amulet), which was considered to be the home of a demon, and to be able to draw wealth to its owner’s household. It was made out of the root of the mandrake plant (which had a certain resemblance to the human body). Common people seem only to have regarded it as “a tiny devil” (P. Syv) or a house-pixy, which the master of the household presented to the work, he attempted to carry out the next year. Belief in the Dragon doll seems to have been quite widespread in Denmark about 1650....

25. Locchi in Durham’s Liber Vitæ (Danm. helted. I 140). O. Nielsen, Olddanske personnavne 62 (Lochtorp, Lovtrup in Southern Jutland are questionable. Iuriæn Loyson SRD V540 is false). Lundgren, Språkliga intyg af hednisk gudatro 80. Hylten-Cavallius, Wärend I 98. 136. Årb. 1907, 260. 197. – Different from this is the surname lokkr (Årb. 1907, 197. Cav., Wärend I 98, from Småland, 1619 and 1624. Hvitfeld, Danm. hist. 2 I 368 from Jutland 1313).

26. Also F. v. d. Leyen (Die götter und göttersagen der Germanen, München 1906, p. 222ff) has, independent from me, and from the myths themselves, portrayed Loke as an elf-like supernatural creature, which has been lifted up into the pantheon. Without committing myself to the details of his thesis (which still are not proved), I have to express my support to him, at least regarding an essential part of Loke’s mythical nature.

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