THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS
(The Divided Goths: Ostrogoths)
(246) Since I have followed the stories
of my ancestors and retold to the best of my ability the tale of the period
when both tribes, Ostrogoths and Visigoths, were united, and then clearly
treated of the Visigoths apart from the Ostrogoths, I must now return to
those ancient Scythian abodes and set forth in like manner the ancestry
and deeds of the Ostrogoths. It appears that at the death of their king,
Hermanaric, they were made a separate people by the departure of the Visigoths,
and remained in their country subject to the sway of the Huns; yet Vinitharius
of the Amali retained the insignia of his rule. (247) He rivalled the valor
of his grandfather Vultuulf, although he had not the good fortune of Hermanaric.
But disliking to remain under the rule of the Huns, he withdrew a little
from them and strove to show his courage by moving his forces against the
country of the Antes. When he attacked them, he was beaten in the first
encounter. Thereafter he did valiantly and, as a terrible example, crucified
their king, named Boz, together with his sons and seventy nobles, and left
their bodies hanging there to double the fear of those who had surrendered.
(248) When he had ruled with such license for barely a year, Balamber, king
of the Huns, would no longer endure it, but sent for Gesimund, son of Hunimund
the Great. Now Gesimund, together with a great part of the Goths, remained
under the rule of the Huns, being mindful of his oath of fidelity. Balamber
renewed his alliance with him and led his army up against Vinitharius. After
a long contest, Vinitharius prevailed in the first and in the second conflict,
nor can any say how great a slaughter he made of the army of the Huns. (249)
But in the third battle, when they met each other unexpectedly at the river
named Erac, Balamber shot an arrow and wounded Vinitharius in the head,
so that he died. Then Balamber took to himself in marriage Vadamerca, the
grand-daughter of Vinitharius, and finally ruled all the people of the Goths
as his peaceful subjects, but in such a way that one ruler of their own
number always held the power over the Gothic race, though subject to the
(250) And later, after the death of Vinitharius, Hunimund ruled them, the son of Hermanaric, a mighty king of yore; a man fierce in war and of famous personal beauty, who afterwards fought successfully against the race of the Suavi. And when he died, his son Thorismud succeeded him, in the very bloom of youth. In the second year of his rule he moved an army against the Gepidae and won a great victory over them, but is said to have been killed by falling from his horse. (251) When he was dead, the Ostrogoths mourned for him so deeply that for forty years no other king succeeded in his place, and during all this time they had ever on their lips the tale of his memory. Now as time went on, Valamir grew to man's estate. He was the son of Thorismud's cousin Vandalarius. For his son Beremud, as we have said before, at last grew to despise the race of the Ostrogoths because of the overlordship of the Huns, and so had followed the tribe of the Visigoths to the western country, and it was from him Veteric was descended. Veteric also had a son Eutharic, who married Amalasuentha, the daughter of Theodoric, thus uniting again the stock of the Amali which had divided long ago. Eutharic begat Athalaric and Mathesuentha. But since Athalaric died in the years of his boyhood, Mathesuentha was taken to Constantinople by her second husband, namely Germanus, a cousin of the Emperor Justinian, and bore a posthumous son, whom she named
(252) But that the order we have taken for our history may run its due course, we must return to the stock of Vandalarius, which put forth three branches. This Vandalarius, the son of a brother of Hermanaric and cousin of the aforesaid Thorismud, vaunted himself among the race of the Amali because he had begotten three sons, Valamir, Thiudimer and Vidimer. Of these Valamir ascended the throne after his parents, though the Huns as yet held the power over the Goths in general as among other nations. (253) It was pleasant to behold the concord of these three brothers; for the admirable Thiudimer served as a soldier for the empire of his brother Valamir, and Valamir bade honors be given him, while Vidimer was eager to serve them both. Thus regarding one another with common affection, not one was wholly deprived of the kingdom which two of them held in mutual peace. Yet, as has often been said, they ruled in such a way that they respected the dominion of Attila, king or the Huns. Indeed they could not have refused to fight against their kinsmen the Visigoths, and they must even have committed parricide at their lord's command. There was no way whereby any Scythian tribe could have been wrested from the power of the Huns, save by the death of Attila,--an event the Romans and all other nations desired. Now his death was as base as his life was marvellous.
(254) Shortly before he died, as the
historian Priscus relates, he took in marriage a very beautiful girl named
Ildico, after countless other wives, as was the custom of his race. He had
given himself up to excessive joy at his wedding, and as he lay on his back,
heavy with wine and sleep, a rush of superfluous blood, which would ordinarily
have flowed from his nose, streamed in deadly course down his throat and
killed him, since it was hindered in the usual passages. Thus did drunkenness
put a disgraceful end to a king renowned in war. On the following day, when
a great part of the morning was spent, the royal attendants suspected some
ill and, after a great uproar, broke in the doors. There they found the
death of Attila accomplished by an effusion of blood, without any wound,
and the girl with downcast face weeping beneath her veil. (255) Then, as
is the custom of that race, they plucked out the hair of their heads and
made their faces hideous with deep wounds, that the renowned warrior might
be mourned, not by effeminate wailings and tears, but by the blood of men.
Moreover a wondrous thing took place in connection with Attila's death.
For in a dream some god stood at the side of Marcian, Emperor of the East,
while he was disquieted about his fierce foe, and showed him the bow of
Attila broken in that same night, as if to intimate that the race of Huns
owed much to that weapon. This account the historian Priscus says he accepts
upon truthful evidence. For so terrible was Attila thought to be to great
empires that the gods announced his death to rulers as a special boon.
(256) We shall not omit to say a few words about the many ways in which his shade was honored by his race. His body was placed in the midst of a plain and lay in state in a silken tent as a sight for men's admiration. The best horsemen of the entire tribe of the Huns rode around in circles, after the manner of circus games, in the place to which he had been brought and told of his deeds in a funeral dirge in the following manner: (257) "The chief of the Huns, King Attila, born of his sire Mundiuch, lord of bravest tribes, sole possessor of the Scythian and German realms--powers unknown before--captured cities and terrified both empires of the Roman world and, appeased by their prayers, took annual tribute to save the rest from plunder. And when he had accomplished all this by the favor of fortune, he fell, not by wound of the foe, nor by treachery of friends, but in the midst of his nation at peace, happy in his joy and without sense of pain. Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?" (258) When they had mourned him with such lamentations, a strava, as they call it, was celebrated over his tomb with great revelling. They gave way in turn to the extremes of feeling and displayed funereal grief alternating with joy. Then in the secrecy of night they buried his body in the earth. They bound his coffins, the first with gold, the second with silver and the third with the strength of iron, showing by such means that these three things suited the mightiest of kings; iron because he subdued the nations, gold and silver because he received the honors of both empires. They also added the arms of foemen won in the fight, trappings of rare worth, sparkling with various gems, and ornaments of all sorts whereby princely state is maintained. And that so great riches might be kept from human curiosity, they slew those appointed to the work--a dreadful pay for their labor; and thus sudden death was the lot of those who buried him as well as of him who was buried.