THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS
(116) Soon Geberich, king of the
Goths, departed from human affairs and Hermanaric, noblest of the Amali,
succeeded to the throne. He subdued many warlike peoples of the north
and made them obey his laws, and some of our ancestors have justly compared
him to Alexander the Great. Among the tribes he conquered were the Golthescytha,
Thiudos, Inaunxis, Vasinabroncae, Merens, Mordens, Imniscaris, Rogas,
Tadzans, Athaul, Navego, Bubegenae and Coldae. (117) But though famous
for his conquest of so many races, he gave himself no rest until he had
slain some in battle and then reduced to his sway the remainder of the
tribe of the Heruli, whose chief was Alaric. Now the aforesaid race, as
the historian Ablabius tells us, dwelt near Lake Maeotis in swampy places
which the Greeks call hele; hence they were named Heluri.
They were a people swift of foot, and on that account were the more swollen
with pride, (118) for there was at that time no race that did not choose
from them its light-armed troops for battle. But though their quickness
often saved them from others who made war upon them, yet they were overthrown
by the slowness and steadiness of the Goths; and the lot of fortune brought
it to pass that they, as well as the other tribes, had to serve Hermanaric,
king of the Getae. (119) After the slaughter of the Heruli, Hermanaric
also took arms against the Venethi. This people, though despised in war,
was strong in numbers and tried to resist him. But a multitude of cowards
is of no avail, particularly when God permits an armed multitude to attack
them. These people, as we started to say at the beginning of our account
or catalogue of nations, though off-shoots from one stock, have now three
names, that is, Venethi, Antes and Sclaveni. Though they now rage in war
far and wide, in punishment for our sins, yet at that time they were all
obedient to Hermanaric's commands. (120) This ruler also subdued by his
wisdom and might the race of the Aesti, who dwell on the farthest shore
of the German Ocean, and ruled all the nations of Scythia and Germany
by his own prowess alone.
(121) But after a short space of
time, as Orosius relates, the race of the Huns, fiercer than ferocity
itself, flamed forth against the Goths. We learn from old traditions that
their origin was as follows: Filimer, king of the Goths, son of Gadaric
the Great, who was the fifth in succession to hold the rule of the Getae
after their departure from the island of Scandza,--and who, as we have
said, entered the land of Scythia with his tribe,--found among his people
certain witches, whom he called in his native tongue Haliurunnae. Suspecting
these women, he expelled them from the midst of his race and compelled
them to wander in solitary exile afar from his army. (122) There the unclean
spirits, who beheld them as they wandered through the wilderness, bestowed
their embraces upon them and begat this savage race, which dwelt at first
in the swamps,--a stunted, foul and puny tribe, scarcely human, and having
no language save one which bore but slight resemblance to human speech.
Such was the descent of the Huns who came to the country of the Goths.
(123) This cruel tribe, as Priscus the historian relates, settled on the farther bank of the Maeotic swamp. They were fond of hunting and had no skill in any other art. After they had grown to a nation, they disturbed the peace of neighboring races by theft and rapine. At one time, while hunters of their tribe were as usual seeking for game on the farthest edge of Maeotis, they saw a doe unexpectedly appear to their sight and enter the swamp, acting as guide of the way; now advancing and again standing still. (124) The hunters followed and crossed on foot the Maeotic swamp, which they had supposed was impassable as the sea. Presently the unknown land of Scythia disclosed itself and the doe disappeared. Now in my opinion the evil spirits, from whom the Huns are descended, did this from envy of the Scythians. (125) And the Huns, who had been wholly ignorant that there was another world beyond Maeotis, were now filled with admiration for the Scythian land. As they were quick of mind, they believed that this path, utterly unknown to any age of the past, had been divinely revealed to them. They returned to their tribe, told them what had happened, praised Scythia and persuaded the people to hasten thither along the way they had found by the guidance of the doe. As many as they captured, when they thus entered Scythia for the first time, they sacrificed to Victory. The remainder they conquered and made subject to themselves. (126) Like a whirlwind of nations they swept across the great swamp and at once fell upon the Alpidzuri, Alcildzuri, Itimari, Tuncarsi and Boisci, who bordered on that part of Scythia. The Alani also, who were their equals in battle, but unlike them in civilization, manners and appearance, they exhausted by their incessant attacks and subdued. (127) For by the terror of their features they inspired great fear in those whom perhaps they did not really surpass in war. They made their foes flee in horror because their swarthy aspect was fearful, and they had, if I may call it so, a sort of shapeless lump, not a head, with pin-holes rather than eyes. Their hardihood is evident in their wild appearance, and they are beings who are cruel to their children on the very day they are born. For they cut the cheeks of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment of milk they must learn to endure wounds. (128) Hence they grow old beardless and their young men are without comeliness, because a face furrowed by the sword spoils by its scars the natural beauty of a beard. They are short in stature, quick in bodily movement, alert horsemen, broad shouldered, ready in the use of bow and arrow, and have firm-set necks which are ever erect in pride. Though they live in the form of men, they have the cruelty of wild beasts.
(129) When the Getae beheld this active race that had invaded many nations, they took fright and consulted with their king how they might escape from such a foe. Now although Hermanaric, king of the Goths, was the conqueror of many tribes, as we have said above, yet while he was deliberating on this invasion of the Huns, the treacherous tribe of the Rosomoni, who at that time were among those who owed him their homage, took this chance to catch him unawares. For when the king had given orders that a certain woman of the tribe I have mentioned, Sunilda by name, should be bound to wild horses and torn apart by driving them at full speed in opposite directions (for he was roused to fury by her husband's treachery to him), her brothers Sarus and Ammius came to avenge their sister's death and plunged a sword into Hermanaric's side. Enfeebled by this blow, he dragged out a miserable existence in bodily weakness. (130) Balamber, king of the Huns, took advantage of his ill health to move an army into the country of the Ostrogoths, from whom the Visigoths had already separated because of some dispute. Meanwhile Hermanaric, who was unable to endure either the pain of his wound or the inroads of the Huns, died full of days at the great age of one hundred and ten years. The fact of his death enabled the Huns to prevail over those Goths who, as we have said, dwelt in the East and were called Ostrogoths.