THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS
(The United Goths)
(25) Now from this island of Scandza,
as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have
come forth long ago under their king, Berig by name. As soon as they disembarked
from their ships and set foot on the land, they straightway gave their name
to the place. And even to-day it is said to be called Gothiscandza. (26)
Soon they moved from here to the abodes of the Ulmerugi, who then dwelt
on the shores of Ocean, where they pitched camp, joined battle with them
and drove them from their homes. Then they subdued their neighbors, the
Vandals, and thus added to their victories. But when the number of the people
increased greatly and Filimer, son of Gadaric, reigned as king--about the
fifth since Berig--he decided that the army of the Goths with their families
should move from that region. (27) In search of suitable homes and pleasant
places they came to the land of Scythia, called Oium in that tongue. Here
they were delighted with the great richness of the country, and it is said
that when half the army had been brought over, the bridge whereby they had
crossed the river fell in utter ruin, nor could anyone thereafter pass to
or fro. For the place is said to be surrounded by quaking bogs and an encircling
abyss, so that by this double obstacle nature has made it inaccessible.
And even to-day one may hear in that neighborhood the lowing of cattle and
may find traces of men, if we are to believe the stories of travellers,
although we must grant that they hear these things from afar.
(28) This part of the Goths, which is said to have crossed the river and entered with Filimer into the country of Oium, came into possession of the desired land, and there they soon came upon the race of the Spali, joined battle with them and won the victory. Thence the victors hastened to the farthest part of Scythia, which is near the sea of Pontus; for so the story is generally told in their early songs, in almost historic fashion. Ablabius also, a famous chronicler of the Gothic race, confirms this in his most trustworthy account. (29) Some of the ancient writers also agree with the tale. Among these we may mention Josephus, a most reliable relator of annals, who everywhere follows the rule of truth and unravels from the beginning the origin of causes;--but why he has omitted the beginnings of the race of the Goths, of which I have spoken, I do not know. He barely mentions Magog of that stock, and says they were Scythians by race and were called so by name.
Before we enter on our history, we must describe the boundaries of this land, as it lies.
(30) Now Scythia borders on the land
of Germany as far as the source of the river Ister and the expanse of the
Morsian Swamp. It reaches even to the rivers Tyra, Danaster and Vagosola,
and the great Danaper, extending to the Taurus range--not the mountains
in Asia but our own, that is, the Scythian Taurus--all the way to Lake Maeotis.
Beyond Lake Maeotis it spreads on the other side of the straits of Bosphorus
to the Caucasus Mountains and the river Araxes. Then it bends back to the
left behind the Caspian Sea, which comes from the north-eastern ocean in
the most distant parts of Asia, and so is formed like a mushroom, at first
narrow and then broad and round in shape. It extends as far as the Huns,
Albani and Seres. (31) This land, I say,--namely, Scythia, stretching far
and spreading wide,--has on the east the Seres, a race that dwelt at the
very beginning of their history on the shore of the Caspian Sea. On the
west are the Germans and the river Vistula; on the arctic side, namely the
north, it is surrounded by Ocean; on the south by Persis, Albania, Hiberia,
Pontus and the farthest channel of the Ister, which is called the Danube
all the way from mouth to source. (32) But in that region where Scythia
touches the Pontic coast it is dotted with towns of no mean fame:--Borysthenis,
Olbia, Callipolis, Cherson, Theodosia, Careon, Myrmicion and Trapezus. These
towns the wild Scythian tribes allowed the Greeks to build to afford them
means of trade. In the midst of Scythia is the place that separates Asia
and Europe, I mean the Rhipaeian mountains, from which the mighty Tanais
flows. This river enters Maeotis, a marsh having a circuit of one hundred
and forty-four miles and never subsiding to a depth of less than eight fathoms.
(33) In the land of Scythia to the westward dwells, first of all, the race of the Gepidae, surrounded by great and famous rivers. For the Tisia flows through it on the north and northwest, and on the southwest is the great Danube. On the east it is cut by the Flutausis, a swiftly eddying stream that sweeps whirling into the Ister's waters. (34) Within these rivers lies Dacia, encircled by the lofty Alps as by a crown. Near their left ridge, which inclines toward the north, and beginning at the source of the Vistula, the populous race of the Venethi dwell, occupying a great expanse of land. Though their names are now dispersed amid various clans and places, yet they are chiefly called Sclaveni and Antes. (35) The abode of the Sclaveni extends from the city of Noviodunum and the lake called Mursianus to the Danaster, and northward as far as the Vistula. They have swamps and forests for their cities. The Antes, who are the bravest of these peoples dwelling in the curve of the sea of Pontus, spread from the Danaster to the Danaper, rivers that are many days' journey apart. (36) But on the shore of Ocean, where the floods of the river Vistula empty from three mouths, the Vidivarii dwell, a people gathered out of various tribes. Beyond them the Aesti, a subject race, likewise hold the shore of Ocean. To the south dwell the Acatziri, a very brave tribe ignorant of agriculture, who subsist on their flocks and by hunting. (37) Farther away and above the Sea of Pontus are the abodes of the Bulgares, well known from the wrongs done to them by reason of our oppression. From this region the Huns, like a fruitful root of bravest races, sprouted into two hordes of people. Some of these are called Altziagiri, others Sabiri; and they have different dwelling places. The Altziagiri are near Cherson, where the avaricious traders bring in the goods of Asia. In summer they range the plains, their broad domains, wherever the pasturage for their cattle invites them, and betake themselves in winter beyond the Sea of Pontus. Now the Hunuguri are known to us from the fact that they trade in marten skins. But they have been cowed by their bolder neighbors.