HISTORY OF THE LANGOBARDS
But the emperor Constans, when he found that he could accomplish nothing against the Langobards, directed all the threats of his cruelty against his own followers, that is, the Romans. He left Naples and proceeded to Rome.  At the sixth mile-stone from the city, pope Vitalian came to meet him with his priests and the Roman people.  And when the emperor had come to the threshold of St. Peter he offered there a pallium woven with gold; and remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church of the blessed Mary which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honor of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople. Then the emperor returned to Naples, and proceeded by the land route to the city of Regium (Reggio) ; and having entered Sicily  during the seventh indiction  he dwelt in Syracuse and put such afflictions upon the people—the inhabitants and land owners of Calabria, Sicily, Africa, and Sardinia - as were never heard of before, so that even wives were separated from their husbands and children from their parents.  The people of these regions also endured many other and unheard of things so that the hope of life did not remain to any one. For even the sacred vessels and the treasures of the holy churches of God were carried away by the imperial command and by the avarice of the Greeks. And the emperor remained in Sicily from the seventh to the twelfth  indiction,  but at last he suffered the punishment of such great iniquities and while he was in the bath he was put to death by his own servants.
 July 5, 663. No emperor had visited Rome for nearly two centuries (Hodgkin VI, 276).
 The relations between the emperor Constans and the popes had been decidedly strained on account of the Monothelete controversy (see note to Chap. 6, supra).
 His purpose was to use Sicily as a base of operations against the Saracens in Africa (Ilodgkin VI, 280).
 Commencing September, 663.
 Sold into slavery to satisfy the demands of the tax gatherers (Hodgkin VI, 280).
 An error. This should be eleventh indiction. He was killed July 15, 668 (Hodgkin VI, 281, note 2).
 In Sicily he decreed the independence of the bishopric of Ravenna from that of Rome, thus attempting to create two heads of the church in Italy, a severe blow to the papacy (Hartmann II, 1, 250, 251), a measure which, however, was revoked after his death.
 His valet Andreas struck him with a soap box (Hodgkin VI, 281).
When the emperor Constantine was killed at Syracuse, Mecetius (Mezezius) seized the sovereignty in Sicily, but without the consent of the army of the East.  The soldiers of Italy, others throughout Istria, others through the territories of Campania and others from the regions of Africa and Sardinia came to Syracuse against him and deprived him of life. And many of his judges were brought to Constantinople beheaded and with them in like manner the head of the false emperor was also carried off.
 Paul seems to have misunderstood the Liber Pontificalis (Adeodatus) from which he took this passage, which reads: "Mezezius who was in Sicily with the army of the East, rebelled and seized the sovereignty."
The nation of the Saracens that had already spread through Alexandria and Egypt, hearing these things, came suddenly with many ships, invaded Sicily, entered Syracuse and made a great slaughter of the people - a few only escaping with difficulty who had fled to the strongest fortresses and the mountain ranges - and they carried off also great booty and all that art work in brass and different materials which the emperor Constantine had taken away from Rome; and thus they returned to Alexandria.
Moreover the daughter of the king, who we said had been carried away from Beneventum as a hostage  came to Sicily and ended her last days.
 See Chapter 8 supra.
At this time there were such great rain storms and such thunders as no man had remembered before, so that countless thousands of men and animals were killed by strokes of lightning. In this year the pulse which could not be gathered on account of the rains grew again and was brought to maturity.
 These events are placed by the Liber Pontificalis in the year of the death of Pope Adeodatus (672) (Jacobi, 54, 55).
But king Grimuald indeed, when the Beneventines and their provinces had been delivered from the Greeks, determined to return to his palace at Ticinum, and to Transamund, who had formerly been count of Capua and had served him most actively in acquiring the kingdom, he gave his daughter, another sister of Romuald in marriage, and made him duke of Spoletium (Spoleto) after Atto of whom we have spoken above.
 Then he returned to Ticinum, IV, 50 supra.
When indeed Grasulf, duke of the Friulans died, as we mentioned before, Ago was appointed his successor in the dukedom;  and from his name a certain house situated within Forum Julii (Cividale) is called Ago's House up to this day. When this Ago had died, Lupus was made commander of the Friulans.  This Lupus entered into the island of Gradus (Grado) which is not far from Aquileia, with an army of horsemen over a stone highway which had been made in old times through the sea, and having plundered that city, he removed from thence and carried back the treasures of the church of Aquileia. When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he intrusted his palace to Lupus.
 The date is uncertain. De Rubeis says 661, Hodgkin thinks about 645 (VI, 285).
 A.D. 663 according to De Rubeis, about 660 according to Hodgkin (VI, 285).
Since this Lupus had acted very insolently at Ticinum in the king's absence,  because he did not think he would return, when the king did come back, Lupus, knowing that the things he had not done rightly were displeasing to him, repaired to Forum Julii and, conscious of his own wickedness, rebelled against this king.
 That is when he went to the relief of Romuald who was besieged at Benevento by Constans.
Then Grimuald, unwilling to stir up civil war among the Langobards, sent word to the Cagan, king of the Avars, to come into Forum Julii with his army against duke, Lupus and defeat him in war. And this was done. For the Cagan came with a great army, and in the place which is called Flovius,  as the older men who were in that war have related to us, during three days duke Lupus with the Friulans fought against the Cagan's army. On the first day indeed he defeated that strong army, very few of his own men being wounded; on the second day he killed in like manner many of the Avars, but a number of his own were now wounded and dead; on the third day very many of his own were wounded or killed, nevertheless he destroyed a great army of the Cagan and took abundant booty; but on the fourth day they saw so great a multitude coming upon them that they could scarcely escape by flight.
 Fluvius Frigidus in the valley of Wippach in the province of Krain (Waltz)—"Cold River below the pass of the Pear Tree," southeast of Cividale (Hodgkin, VI, 286, note 1).
When duke Lupus then had been killed there, the rest who had remained (alive) fortified themselves in strongholds. But the Avars, scouring all their territories, plundered or destroyed everything by fire. When they had done this for some days, word was sent them by Grimuald that they should now rest from their devastation. But they sent envoys to Grimuald saying that they would by no means give up Forum Julii, which they had conquered by their own arms.